Questions related to Biology
Hello, I am currently an undergraduate student at Purdue. I am currently looking at potential research topics to get into during graduate school. Right now I work in a botany lab studying ABA levels in deciduous trees. However, in my own free time, I have been obsessed with the interaction between tree species through different mycorrhizal networks. I have a decent list of researchers working on this topic (I will put their names below), but I was wondering if there are any schools or individuals I should strongly consider and reach out to before applying.
1. Rolf Geisen (Max Rubner-Institut, Germany)
2. Marc Stadler (Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Germany)
3. John Pitt (Australia)
4. Jens Frisvad (Technical University of Denmark)
5. Vit Hubka (Charles University Prague, Czech)
6. State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences http://english.im.cas.cn/rh/rd/Mycology1/
7. Keith Seifert (Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, http://www.agr.gc.ca/eng/science-and-innovation/agriculture-and-agri-food-research-centres-and-collections/ontario/ottawa-research-and-development-centre/scientific-staff-and-expertise/seifert-keith-phd/?id=1181921509394
8. Dr. Catherine Aime (Purdue University)
9. Songlin Fei (Purdue University)
10. Peter Kennedy (University of Minnesota)
We know that in human and animals, diet cupric ions (Cu2+) are reduced to the cuprous form (Cu+) by the metalloreductase six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate member 1 (STEAP1) and then absorbed by enterocytes via a specific transporter (CTR1). But I really don't know why metal ion could not directly get in the enterocytes? In addition, I would like to know whether lithium will be absorbed by any cells in human body?
My knowledge of biology is very scarce. I implore any biology or medical experts to answer this questions. Thank you!
Best wish to everyone who sees this question
I know that an infant's brain can repair itself when damaged but why doesn't the same happen in adults after stroke or brain injuries?
I want to encode Network packets (Commands & Attributes) using DNA sequence, but I want to map those network commands into a meaningful featured DNA sequence by the meaning of finally when you see the encoded network command, each codon has logical relationship with successive one, beside each codon needs to refer to existing Amino Acid.
Can we build DNA sequence that contains features rather than just letters (A,G,C,T) sequenced randomly beside each other? Does this have reference in Biology, what is your thought in this?
How should the systems of nature protection and biodiversity of natural ecosystems be dispersed in order to increase the effectiveness of these systems and reduce the scale of degradation of the natural environment?
What do you think should be improved in nature conservation systems and biodiversity of natural ecosystems in addition to just increasing financial outlays on nature conservation policies conducted by government agencies and ministries of the environment?
A significant part of financial expenditures of nature conservation and biodiversity policy is devoted to the promotion of nature protection and natural environment protection issues. However, the effectiveness of this type of promotional campaigns is low, because without applying legal restrictions, enterprises do not change their technologies to be more ecological if they do not see in this business realized in a short time. Even the occasional UN climate summits in which government representatives from the majority of countries take part do not cause significant real changes in the policy of nature protection and biodiversity? Usually, the largest industrial economies in the world do not sign the obligations of rapid reduction of greenhouse gases and the issue of increasing spending on environmental innovation in the energy sector. Why, despite the growing scale of public awareness, there is no significant improvement in the implementation of nature conservation and biodiversity policy, there are no real measures that would result in a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the slowing of the global warming process?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Say a researcher was interested in determining the number of adults vs. juveniles of species X trapped during a small mammal survey. Does there exist a relatively reliable way of doing this based on standard field measurements?
Let’s say a total of 200 individuals of species X were sampled, and the following data recorded: sex, total length, tail length, hind foot length, ear length, and weight. For the sake of this question imagine no additional data is available (e.g. additional observations recorded in the field, access to collected specimen material, etc.).
- Is there a way to ascertain a point or “threshold” from a range of data based on the distribution of values to distinguish between juvenile and adult individuals with a meaningful degree of accuracy? For example, male species X with weight > 142 g = adults; < 142 g = juveniles.
- If yes, which of these measurements would be most indicative? Or perhaps a combination/ratio of more than one (e.g. ratio of hind foot length to ear height > 1 = adult, etc.)?
Thanks, and looking forward to the feedback.
This picture is collected from a rice field which is heavily infected by sheath blight disease. Rice sheath is completely blighted due to this disease. The structure is formed on blighted and dried rice sheath. I have never seen such type of structure before. Could you please help me identify the structure from attached picture?
Another way of phrasing this question would be: Is there a chance that a transformed plasmid with homologous sequences does not recombine with the chromosomal DNA? If so, will a cell still be selected due to the plasmid vector containing the selectable marker? Accordingly, if previous statements are true, would one have to run multiple samples through a gel and select the colony without the plasmid (my guess)?
Hello, research community,
I am looking for some open problems in bioinformatics specifically in the area of, but not limited to, proteomics, and genomics. Since I am new to this area, any useful suggestions, a discussion on open problems and relevant resources are welcome.
I am attempting to determine the concentration of B. diminuta bacteria in an inoculated broth after 24 hours at 30 C on a shaking incubator by performing a spot plate of diluted samples and back calculating the original concentration. When I perform this, I am consistently getting very high CFU/mL values of approx. 1x10^11 CFU/mL. Can someone look over my experiment and tell me if I am making an error somewhere or is this value correct?
1) Inoculate 500 mL of Saline Lactose broth with inoculating loop dipped in pre-prepared glycerol stock of B. diminuta. Incubate on shaking incubator for 24 hrs. at 110 rpm.
2) Make eight 10x serial dilutions from 10^-1 to 10^-8 using 5 mL in 45 mL peptone water (1 g/L).
3) Plate 20 uL of each dilution in duplicate on Tryptic Soy Agar plates, allow to dry for approx. 5 minutes, and place in static incubator upside down for 18-24 hours or until colonies are visible for count.
4) Count the average # of colonies per dilution and calculate the CFU/mL using the following calculation: CFU per ml = Average number of colonies for a dilution x 50 x dilution factor.
Example: 10^-8 dilution average colonies: 19, (19 x 50 x 10^-8) = 9.5 x 10^10 CFU/mL.
Thank you for any assistance you can offer
Hi, I'm an undergraduate majoring in biology. I'm passionate about molecular cell biology (basically anything inside Bruce Alberts molecular cell biology) and was wondering, what are the big question in this field that has not been discovered? are there still unknown molecular mechanism that needs to be studied?
Hello, I'm an early career PhD student. When people ask me questions e.g. In conference or lab meeting, even when I know the answer my mind tends to go blank and I say I don't know just to get out of the situation. I used to be good at answering questions and taking time to think and answer , especially during my bachelors degree. As time was gone by I feel I have gotten worse mainly because I am afraid the answer will be ridiculous and made fun of as I have reached a very advanced level where everyone knows what they are talking about. After all these years sometimes I get tired of science in general and have no motivation to read up on my project , so sometimes I genuinely don't know the answers which makes things worse . I used to have a lot of passion which is what put me on this path, but at the moment I'm tired of science which is making it hard to answer peoples questions and i think people are starting to notice. My answers are generally non specific and waffley, and I was wondering if anyone has tips to overcome these problems. I am interested in my project and deep down I love science and wish I could do better and go back to how I used to be and express my answers logically and what is expected at this level. This is especially important for my thesis defense, I need help and tips please on how others process these questions and defend their work. This problem has also started to overflow into my writing where I can't think properly or focus with the overwhelming amount of information.
I read this report that 3% (v/v) Ethanol increases recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli. The SDS PAGE gels seem pretty convincing (1).
However, assuming I get great expression of recombinant protein with 3% (v/v) Ethanol, how am I supposed to decontaminate the biohazardous cell waste from the experiment?
Bleach decontamination isn't a good idea because bleach would react with the ethanol.
Autoclave decontamination isn't a good idea because ethanol is flammable.
Is safety just not a priority?
1) Chhetri G, Kalita P, Tripathi T. An efficient protocol to enhance recombinant protein expression using ethanol in Escherichia coli. MethodsX. 2015;2:385-391. Published 2015 Oct 8. doi:10.1016/j.mex.2015.09.005
Hi All, I am working with A549 cell line and trying to culture spheroids using low attachment 96 well plates. So far I have attempted some different seeding densities from 2000 to 10,000 cells and can either form very large spheroids (700-900um), which are more compact and have a spherical defined shape, or alternatively smaller spheroids (still fairly big though around 500um) are less compact and not completely spherical. However for my experiment where I wish to add drug compounds (2D IC50 approx 1uM) I am not observing significant size/morphology change on the larger spheroids despite at least a 10uM concentration for 1 week. I am thinking possibly I can try to treat smaller spheroids for a more obvious visual change. Does anyone know how i might successfully make small compact spheroids (less than 500um) which are reproducible with this cell line? Thanks in advance for any help someone may be able to provide.
During my first year of M. Sc. of Biology this year (2021), I did an exercise to learn how to write a grant proposal.
I wanted to do it on a topic which seem "taboo" : HUMAN OVERPOPULATION.
Could you share some references about this topic please ?
Like Climate Change, I think this topic is very urgent to discuss, to treat.
I share my modest, naive and fictive work on it.
Thanks for your collaboration.
In my opinion, the issue of ecology should be added or extended to educational programs, including issues related to greenhouse gas emissions, faster global warming process, indispensability of implementation and development of ecological energy innovations based on renewable energy sources, improvement of degraded reclamation techniques civilization of the natural environment, sorting garbage, recycling, the need to reduce the use of plastic in product packaging, etc.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Should the scope of environmental education in schools be increased?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
I interesting in the biology of fish now, have some things, I don't understand about maturity fish. How do we know or make sure that the L50 assessment is really mature fish if not using the GSI method? please
I and working on a project for extraterrestrial life, and i need few work on the titled topic. If is there any data, recommend it or please discuss the evaluation mechanism.
Muhammad Furqan Ali
The bacteria contains two megaplasmids, one of which is 233kb. Using a Qiagen miniprep kit with spin columns, is it possible to elute even a small amount of DNA this large? Are there any modifications to be made which do not involve obtaining the anion-exchange kits designed for large constructs?
Biology Experimental, Theretical and Philisophical question.
Might contribute to understanding the unicellular organisms source and properties.
We're working with the lovely garden eels: snake-like fishes that live in big colonies, attached to the sandy sea bottom. They feed on plankton and hide in their burrows whenever something big approaches. Here's a small video of them: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v2WEkd9qMlw
To test whether they're using social information in their evasive behaviour, we found an edge of the colony and, after satying put for 3 minutes to ensure they were not hiding at that point, one of us slowly approached until the first eel retracted. We marked that point as our zero. Then, we marked the positions where the closest and farthest eels hide. We then measured the distances between our zero and the closest (Ri), and farthest (R1) points.
Now, our null hypothesis is that if Ri and R1 are equal, the information (the evasive behaviour) is not spreading, and therefore there's no use of social information. Our H1, then, is that if information is spreading, R1 > Ri. As every pair of R1 and Ri was taken at the same time, respect to the same point of reference (zero), and our data did not pass the Shapiro normality test, we're considering a paired Wilcoxon test. Is this appropiate? Our sample size is 68.
Thank you in advance.
What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Protection of the natural environment, natural biological ecosystems and biodiversity?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Protection of the natural environment, natural biological ecosystems and biodiversity.
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
As far as I know it has been dismissed as a closed cased of the history of science having no defenders left. However, that's not the feeling I get when the issue comes up in private discussions. I'm wondering if I have missed something, and if and how vitalism (or some refined modern form of it) is still considered to be a viable option by some biologists?
The lock and key theory on enzymes has shortcomings because it is unable to explain the stability of the enzyme when the enzyme reaction points are switched, then the induction theory is able to answer the shortcomings of the padlock theory. So, does the theory of induction fit actually have flaws? If so, what are the shortcomings of induction fit theory? And of the two theories, which one theory better explains how enzymes work? Thank you.
We know that the brain sends and directs meaningful messages to control the patient's cells.
as we know, The brain is affected by factors such as diseases And we know that the brain also controls other organs of the body.nevertheless,Damage to the CELLS is visible on eeg?
Is Cancer Effective In EEG?
As my experience and many consumer experience they feel the different taste of the same item served cooked in a different source, is it real or not, what is the reason behind this.
I am conducting a network analysis on significantly upregulated genes through Metascape's PPI network algorithm. It generates some beautiful and very biologically relevant (looking at least) gene interaction networks. However, I am a bit wary of making any strong conclusions based on it.
Does anyone have experience with Metascape? How reliable the networks are and what can be done to convince someone (potential reviewers) that they are showing the true biology?
I would really appreciate any insights.
I'm looking for a reliable and practical method to evaluate the energetic profile (ATP, ADP, PCr, ...) in a tissue. ( HPLC ? Enzymatic kits ? ..)
How can/should we distinguish between a Biochemical and a Chemical Reaction.
As per one explanation:-
Chemical reactions are discrete reactions with catalyst involved in the process where as in biochemical reactions there are a series of reactions involved with the product of one acting as the substrate for another and this complex process of interchanges taking place with the involvement of enzymes.
For a more specific example if we are conducting photosynthesis in vitro then it will be considered as a biochemical reaction rather than a chemical reaction.
But the dilemma stems from the fact that, even chemical reactions go through complex series of steps, like any organic synthesis reaction. In this case also there is the involvement of catalysts like enzymes. Thus, can we consider it as a biochemical reaction! But mostly we only attribute it to be a chemical reaction which is indeed the case.
So, what is the proper difference or point of distinction between a biochemical and a chemical reaction. How can we exactly relate that one reaction is a biochemical and the other is chemical!
I've used phyre2 to model the protein for the simulation using Gromacs, but later I found that 2/3 proportion of the structure ( except for IDR ) had been already determined by X-ray crystallography.
The known structure contains Zn2+ to stabilize the structure of the entire protein, so I doubt phyre2 can predict decent structure. How should I model the structure of proteins using a known structure as a part of it?
I have predictions from mathematical models in the systems biology field, not yet confirmed experimentally. However, I would like to publish in pee-review journals free from publication charges.
I am doing a short survey with some of my friends in order to understand the need of researchers (from fabrication point of view). Ideally, our target audience is anyone who does fabrication or would like to use fabricated samples. It would be great if you could share your experience and fill this survey. In addition, we would really appreciate if you can pass it on to your friends/professors – they could be chemist/physicist/biologist/electronics device people etc. anyone as long as you think they fit in target audience.
link to survey - https://docs.google.com/forms/d/e/1FAIpQLSdowIZpMyMaWB7x0P5LmwFAOC2_nyCwsUXunO8eU30nNjejMQ/viewform
Thanks a lot, really appreciate your help.
The very interesting Hypothesis about Fungi on Mars was considered in the preprint "Fungi on Mars? Evidence of Growth and Behavior From Sequential Images" :
What is your opinion regarding this? I think that use AI/ML image recognition can be the next step of study this hypothesis until NASA will check this idea with help rovers on Mars. As input data for ML need use similar images of similar Fungi on Eart.
when I wash the cells that emit fluorescent by PBS for flowcytometry, emittion of rhodamine b is very low
I am looking for an article that talks about the direct interaction of a nanoparticle and sars cov-2, but most of the articles talk about target proteins attached to gold nanoparticles, but I'm only looking for the interaction of sars cov2 with the nanoparticles. but I can't find that paper if exist.
(am trying to see the interaction in a solution of gold nanoparticles stabilized with povidone to see if they form clousters or how they interact in general)
In the multi-million year history of life on Earth there have been 5 great extinctions of species of fauna and flora.
In the context of human civilization activity and the rapidly progressing process of global warming, has the 6th species died out?
As i know , if we can realize the DNA structure , we can simulate it in computer . then we can try to rebuild it if possible .
so Given the technological progress, is it possible in the future?
Protection of the environment, natural ecosystems and biodiversity should be an integral part of the concept of sustainable pro-ecological economic development?
In the context of growing and increasing environmental pollution and declining areas of natural ecosystems, the importance and need to improve environmental protection systems, natural ecosystems and biodiversity is increasing. Biodiversity is one of the most important issues of natural ecosystems and life on Earth. Maintaining high biodiversity on Earth should be a challenge and one of the main goals of human functioning on the Earth in the 21st century and in subsequent centuries.
In connection with the above, protection of the environment, natural ecosystems and biodiversity should be an integral part of the concept of sustainable ecological development. In some countries, the concept of sustainable pro-ecological economic development is implemented successively, primarily in the field of renewable energy sources, improvement of waste segregation techniques and recycling development. However, in many countries these issues are still insufficiently developed.
Still too small financial resources are allocated in many countries for the development of renewable energy sources, improvement of waste segregation and recycling techniques. In addition to the private sector, besides enterprises implementing ecological innovations, it is necessary to increase expenditures and develop strategic pro-ecological reform projects, including restructuring of the mining industry of minerals supplying classic energy sources and development of energy based on renewable energy sources. This development should be supported and coordinated by environmentally friendly state intervention, and due to the high investment costs of construction of power plants producing electricity from renewable energy sources should be co-financed from the state public finance funds.
In this way, it will be possible to slow down the ongoing global warming process in the 21st century and thus slow down the process of devastating the natural environment, draining green areas characterized by high biodiversity. Biodiversity is a very important issue in the context of the analysis of ecology, sustainable development and the protection of the natural environment, including, in particular, the natural positions of biologically complex ecosystems, i.e. those that are characterized by high biodiversity. Maintaining biodiversity of natural ecosystems is one of the most important problems and tasks for people in the 21st century.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In the context of the above considerations, the following question is still valid:
How to increase the effectiveness of environmental protection programs, natural ecosystems and biodiversity?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
The current technological revolution, known as Industry 4.0, is determined by the development of the following technologies of advanced information processing: Big Data database technologies, cloud computing, machine learning, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, Business Intelligence and other advanced data mining technologies.
In view of the above, what kind of information technologies from the Industry 4.0 range and how will they help to protect the natural environment and biodiversity?
Biodiversity is diverse in virtually unlimited degree, which results from the essence of processes of evolution of species, filet lines and entire ecosystems. It is thanks to the millions of years of evolutionary processes on Earth that there are so many different natural and highly diverse ecosystems in which different species of flora, fauna, fungi and microorganisms adapt to life in different and very diverse geographical and climatic environments.
The largest biodiversity of ecosystems and species functions in natural environmental environments in which ecosystems have evolved without human impact through millions of years of climatic and geographical conditions enabling the development of various life forms. These types of high biodiversity sites can be found in unpolluted rainforest ecosystems in tropical forests, in temperate climates and in coral reefs.
Unfortunately, human civilization activity contributes to the successive and accelerating process of biodiversity reduction by dying out species of living organisms. The areas of natural natural ecosystems are decreasing, including those in which the greatest biodiversity is diagnosed, such as the rainforests of the Amazon. The protection of naturalistic ecosystems and thus the protection of the planet's biodiversity is the most important challenge for mankind in the 21st century.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question:
What do you think is the importance of biodiversity in natural ecosystems?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
I am currently looking to get a column for the purification of my protein complex (approx. 1MDa in size, 7 proteins) that I'm tagging with a twin strep tag, by tagging one of the proteins on the complex, but I'm unsure about which column to get as this is my first time doing this type of purification.
I saw that IBA Life Sciences and Cytiva make streptactin columns, but the details are a bit confusing as there is a lot of variety with the type of columns that they offer. I also can't seem to find any other providers of these Strep-tag columns.
So please if you can help, let me know which column would be best for my purifications, and whether there are other providers.
I have just observed on the number of strawberries I was able to eat today that:
-when you carefully take the leaves off the strawberry
-the back of the strawberry shows a pentagonal shape
Any biological article on this observation?
I come from a chemistry background and so I’m used to thinking in terms of proportions, so forgive me if my thinking is completely wrong.
I’d like to simulate a reaction that occurs in the human body. I will keep the pH and temperature the same as it is in the human body so the enzyme can function optimally, it is a lactonase enzyme found in human blood so I think these 2 factors wil be important.
From what I understand enzymes can become saturated and won’t work once they reach this point so there is some logic behind my thinking.
Therefore there must be an ideal or threshold amount of the enzyme to use.
Generally how is this calculated?
Is it per mol? Or is it specific for each enzyme and the task it performs?
I am struggling to find any information about this on the web and so would appreciate some insight into this problem.
What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Protection of biodiversity and natural ecosystems?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Protection of biodiversity and natural ecosystems.
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
What disciplines, areas of contemporary economic systems, industries, etc. will in the 21st century develop the model of sustainable pro-ecological economic development according to the concept of green economy?
In connection with the progressing global warming and the increase in the risk and frequency of climate disasters, it is necessary to implement pro-ecological reforms as soon as possible into economic processes. First of all, renewable energy sources should be developed, replacing the classic energy based on the burning of minerals. In addition, it is necessary to improve the technology of automation and robotization in the processes of waste segregation, recycling and re-use of various types of raw materials. Also, electromobility, ecological agriculture, zero-energy construction, etc. should be developed.
In recent years ecological innovations have been created mainly in the field of renewable energy sources, improvement of waste segregation techniques, recycling, treatment of polluted water, reclamation of a devastated natural environment, energy-efficient construction, electromobility etc. However, more and more eco-innovations, new technological solutions, technical improvements which is part of sustainable ecological development, is also created in many other fields of science.
In view of the above, are examples of pro-ecological undertakings, technological improvements compatible with sustainable ecological development or ecological innovations that are also created in one of the following or other related fields of science, for example: Molecular Biology, Biotechnology, Anthropology Theory, Medicine, Electrical Engineering , Artificial Intelligence, Genetics, Business Administration, Risk Management, Big Data, Business Intelligence, Automation & Robotics, Climatology, Agriculture, Biophysics, Biochemistry, Medical Intelligence, Artificial Neural Networks, Ecosystem Analysis, Power Engineering, Construction, Food production, Forest ecology, Biology, Geoscience, Government Programs, Behavioral Sciences, Biodiversity Assessment, Green Architecture, Greenhouse, Waste, Household Products, Information Society, Innovation Management, International Entrepreneurship, Internet Technologies, Knowledge Creation, Bioelectric Energy gy Sources, Business Model Innovation, Cataclysmic Variables, Chromatography, Clean Energy, Cleantech, Climate Prediction, Collaborative Innovation, Commercialization, Computational Intelligence, Computer Science and Engineering, Conservation Biology, Consumer Behavior, Corporate Governance, Creative Economy, Crisis Communication, Cyber Security, Data Analysis, Database Administration, Development Cooperation, Digital Ecosystems, Economic Ecoindicators, Ecosystem Ecology, Energy Industry, Ecological Modeling Ecological Economics, Ecological Indicators, Discovery, Earth Sciences, Earthquake Forecasting and Geocataclysm, Econometric Analysis, Economic Integration, Economics of Innovation, Ecosystem Engineering, Electricity, Electronic Systems, Energetic Materials, Energy Technologies, Environment, Environmental Biodegradation, Flora, Food Consumption Life Sciences, Logistics Management, Materials for Sustainable Energy, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Nanomaterials, New Media Technology, Recycling, Physics of Global Warming, Plant Protection, Predicive Analytics, Production Planning, Project Development, Public Economics, Public Policy, Public Policy, Sociobiology, Space Science, Sustainable Agriculture, Sustainable Development Strategies, Technology Forecasting, Transport Economics, Water Resources, Weather Forecasting, Wildlife Conservation, World Economy, ...?
In view of the above, the current question is: What areas of knowledge will be involved in shaping sustainable pro-ecological economic development in the 21st century?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
In a study involving 4 variables (species(2x), temperature(2x), nutrients(2x) and light(3x)), 3 by 3 variables, for example, "species", "temperature" and "nutrients" are significant. I end up with 12 post-hoc tables referring to the possible interactions. Now, I would like to show these pieces of information in a scientific paper format and not insert 12 tables in the manuscript. Is there a way to show up these results in a concise way? Is there any biology paper related which exemplifies a similar situation?
Thank you very much for your help.
I am trying to find kinetic information (such as rate of enzyme production etc.) on the expression of taq polymerase in E-Coli after inserting a recombinant plasmid.
Any help would be appreciated
I have had unheard of success with protein crystallography lately from a super successful protein expression and purification batch.
I have attained a lately reproducible vast amount of crystals of no average size. Is there a way to tell based on appearance which of these crystals should diffract the best?
All these crystals grow from a clear droplet in 12 hours.
What's the most important parameter?
* how intensely it reflects light? birefringence?
I am new to genes and genotyping and I need help. I am trying to figure our how AA, AG, and GG genotypes map on to A1 for DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A polymorphism(rs1800497) and Val or MET for COMT Val158Metpolymorphism (rs4680). Where can I find this information presented in a way that a gene-naïve person will understand?
Thank you very much in advance,
Hi there, I have two bar chart figures I want to annotate to show significance, however, I’m unsure how to this correctly.
Figure 1 displays the visits counts (y-axis) of different species (x-axis) at different food types (legend). A chi-square test of association was used to determine the food preferences (food type) and different species.
Figure 2 displays the mean proportion of time vigilant (y-axis) of different species (x-axis). An independent samples kruskal wallis test was used, followed by a pairwise comparison, to determine significance differences in proportion of time vigilance between species.
I’m guessing ’*’ above columns show that they are significant. So would this be more appropriate in figure 1? Using letters, I’m guessing, would be more appropriate for figure 2. as it shows what groups are significantly different from one another. However, should I also use ‘*‘ in figure 2? Additionally, is it appropriate to use different forms of annotation between figures or does the format need to be consistent across figures?
What do you think about the balance between exploring widely different designs vs. local optimization at different levels of biology (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, anatomy, etc.)? Which levels are more or less modular or plastic?
In the endocrine system, for example, one feels that having tropic hormones (i.e., those controlling the release of other signaling hormones at other glands) may offer a finer and perhaps more robust regulation, compared to a being where all hormones were non-tropic. However, the anatomic location of elements in these networks is not trivial. For example, in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renin is produced in the kidney, and aldosterone eventually exerts its effects in the kidney as well. However, the intermediate step by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mainly occurs in the lungs, which could introduce a delay in the regulation.
Do we have good explanations for the sites of production and action of different hormones in the body? Are there common principles to be learned as optimized by evolution in this respect? Or are happenstances/contingent evolution stronger determinants?
Thank you for sharing your thoughts!
Hi everyone, I was wondering about the possibilities of performing numerical taxonomy with SPSS software. I would be very thankful to recieve advice!! For now I have been reading about hierarchical clustering, principal component and discriminant function analysis... Help!!
The special Issue "Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers and the Golden Ratio in Physics and Biology"
is intended to be a repository for this question.
Apart from this opportunity to publish new results, I am much interested to have unsuspected answers about this subject.
There is a theory saying that emotions are controlled by the right side of the brain and logic is controlled by the other side. Is the brain really divided into two sides when it comes to controlling different aspects of human behaviour?
Pesticides become prime compo in agricultural activities to meet the growing demand of the human population. But indiscriminate usage and mishandling led to two disasters in India such as Bhopal (MIC) and Kasaragood (Endosulfon) tragedy. Was there other disasters which were not reported?
I am not a biology researcher, but I am working in intradisciplinary research and would like to know the answer to this question, which I have not being able to understand.
This questions refers specifically to the coronavirus vaccines being developed functioning on a mRNA mechanism. I would like to know how the body differences the cells that are instructed to construct the spikes (which cells) and how they are biologically signaled to stop (certain proteins or a certain mechanism, so on).
I very much appreciate any input from researches on the field.
Is any way or method to seal agarose pad or channels fabricated agarose gel pad to glass slides as like we do plasma bonding with PDMS to glass slides?.
We all know the role of microbes its miniature of the miracle how it can be , used in revolutionizing science in various fields.
Many time during meditation whole body feels the flow of electricity like the thing is it bio electricity or something else why this occurs but after that generally, I felt so miracle experience....how and what is this...
In my personal experience I have find the higher rate of sprouting when fresh cow dung is applied on the top side of cutting what might be its reason.
we decided to go back to our origins and relaunched the Parrot Researchers Group. The mission of the Parrot Researchers Group (PRG; formerly known also as Working Group Psittaciformes or as Research Coordination Committee on Parrots) group is to establish and promote research needs and priorities, with particular attention to regional conservation strategies to the parrots of the world. To achieve this, the PRG
1) Promotes parrot research,
2) Establishes research needs and priorities, with particular attention to regional conservation strategies,
3) Identifies and addresses barriers to effective research and conservation of parrots (Psittaciformes).
The PRG is characterised by a regional approach, being organised in four regions (African, Australasian, Neotropical, and Indo-Malayan), a Wild Parrot Veterinary Section, and a Secretary Office that coordinates joint work.
You can read more about our specific objectives in our homepage:
or in the attachment.
We (405 members to date) are currently looking for more researchers to join the group. If you are interested, please, get in touch with me or any of the regional coordinators.
Looking forward to work together.
All the best, JUAN
Dr. Juan F. Masello
Justus Liebig University Giessen
Department of Animal Ecology & Systematics
Personal information, projects and publications
Burrowing Parrots & behavioural ecology
Penguins & energy landscapes
Prions & evolution
The Alliance of World Scientists
Even if behavior was "embodied", wouldn't the brain notice? YES, of course: then the BRAIN would become the better "vehicle" for remembering, thinking, and "time travel" (i.e. prospective memory) -- possible (and possibly trivial) sensori-motor components notwithstanding. [ I am really quite tired of the "embodied" conceptualizations (which have yet to be shown as non-fictions *). See my writings. No one has argued against the views/approaches (content) in these writings NOR accepted/liked/or adopted them (now 1+ years (or 5+ years, depending how you look at it) and counting). ]
* Footnote: All this nonsense is ALL because NO PSYCHOLOGY OUTLOOK (other than my own) "believes in" anything psychological, innately guided, and emerging with ontogeny (which is not tenable). (The idea that learning is literally nearly always "the same" (outside of clearly always being associative in nature) is preposterous (think of a two -year-old and an adolescent -- and imagine any systematic and universal instruction you credibly might posit). P.S. Relatedly : "Culture" does NOT directly impinge on the individual -- the actual Subject and ultimate, but absolutely necessary, unit of analysis &/or explanation (for Biology or for Science). All executive or "meta" processes can NOT be properly shown to be anything but homunculi.)