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Hello, I am currently an undergraduate student at Purdue. I am currently looking at potential research topics to get into during graduate school. Right now I work in a botany lab studying ABA levels in deciduous trees. However, in my own free time, I have been obsessed with the interaction between tree species through different mycorrhizal networks. I have a decent list of researchers working on this topic (I will put their names below), but I was wondering if there are any schools or individuals I should strongly consider and reach out to before applying.
1. Rolf Geisen (Max Rubner-Institut, Germany)
2. Marc Stadler (Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, Germany)
3. John Pitt (Australia)
4. Jens Frisvad (Technical University of Denmark)
5. Vit Hubka (Charles University Prague, Czech)
6. State Key Laboratory of Mycology, Institute of Microbiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences http://english.im.cas.cn/rh/rd/Mycology1/
8. Dr. Catherine Aime (Purdue University)
9. Songlin Fei (Purdue University)
10. Peter Kennedy (University of Minnesota)
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Ectomycorrhizae have many differences from Endomycorrhizae. Each one has it's own mode of action with the plant root which related with.
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Dear everyone,
We know that in human and animals, diet cupric ions (Cu2+) are reduced to the cuprous form (Cu+) by the metalloreductase six-transmembrane epithelial antigen of prostate member 1 (STEAP1) and then absorbed by enterocytes via a specific transporter (CTR1). But I really don't know why metal ion could not directly get in the enterocytes? In addition, I would like to know whether lithium will be absorbed by any cells in human body?
My knowledge of biology is very scarce. I implore any biology or medical experts to answer this questions. Thank you!
Best wish to everyone who sees this question
Junhang Dong
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Dear Junhang Dong thank you for posting this very interesting technical question which is really several questions in one. For the question why metal ion could not directly get in the enterocytes I would like to suggest to you the potentially useful reference cited below. It is outlined there that on the one hand micronutrients such as zinc, copper, and iron are essential for our life because they serve as cofactors for a large number of different proteins. However, the other hand, these transition metal ions can be toxic to cell growth when they are taken up in excess. This is the reason why all organisms developed mechanisms to strictly regulate the heavy metal ion levels. Please have a look at this paper:
Cellular sensing and transport of metal ions: implications in micronutrient homeostasis
Unfortunately this article has not yet been posted by the author as public full text on RG. However, the author has an RG profile (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Amanda-Bird-2). Thus there is a good chance that you can request the full text directly from her.
I hope this answers part of your question. Good luck wth your research and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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how do you understand life as it is really big suspense, why we are here, our consciousness is big unconsciousness and our unconsciousness big consciousness.
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Dear Dr. Pankaj Kumar Yadav,
What is your philosophy about life? How do you understand life if it is really a great suspense? Why are we here? First of all, I consider that our life is a gift from God! I perceive that Life is to give you a meaning, an intelligent meaning, so that you are aware that you are, that you perform, that you move and that you exist, so that you are aware of your real location on this planet Earth and by derivation, in the Universe in general. But above all, LIFE is a "PATH" by which you travel in your day to day, it is a path that is there for whatever you want it to serve, contributing your skills to travel it. Among other species that also walk their WAY, we define ourselves as an integral part of the human species, with its necessary and original process to achieve its conservation. The "body-mind" is born, grows, develops, evolves, responds to stimuli, etc., but the most "responsible" and decisive thing about this miracle is that you can serve yourself, you can help safeguard other species , you can serve to safeguard your Planet, you can simply serve others, or you can believe that Life itself is useless and decide to live as a ghost for as long as YOUR LIFE lasts, without Life itself having a "clear objective" to be lived. And it is that Life does not have a meaning in itself, more than the meaning that you want to give it. Therefore, there is no true answer to this Question, the answer is within you, "within your own SOUL." If we internalize ourselves and manage to "transcend in SOUL and consciousness", giving meaning and direction to both, we can achieve the total liberation of our person as "subject of Life" and walk well on the GOOD PATH of our own and only LIFE.
My respects
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Higher affinity for CO induce suffocation which may be fatal.
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In agreement with Pranita Kamble Waghmare, the Oxygen axis after oxygen binding with heme is at an angle while Carbon monoxide binds to free heme with the CO axis perpendicular to the plane of the porphyrin ring via carbon-Iron bonding. So, the two oxygen atoms in oxygen exhibit steric hindrances on each other. In which case, CO doesn't experience the same.
This perpendicular orientation is favorable for Hb binding.
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I know that an infant's brain can repair itself when damaged but why doesn't the same happen in adults after stroke or brain injuries?
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With Regenerative Medicine, using stem cells, the ongoing Programs are doing it, with good results and promising expectations.
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I want to encode Network packets (Commands & Attributes) using DNA sequence, but I want to map those network commands into a meaningful featured DNA sequence by the meaning of finally when you see the encoded network command, each codon has logical relationship with successive one, beside each codon needs to refer to existing Amino Acid.
Can we build DNA sequence that contains features rather than just letters (A,G,C,T) sequenced randomly beside each other? Does this have reference in Biology, what is your thought in this?
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George Church recorded an entire book, including illustrations, as a DNA sequence. Perhaps you can use his approach.
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How should the systems of nature protection and biodiversity of natural ecosystems be dispersed in order to increase the effectiveness of these systems and reduce the scale of degradation of the natural environment?
What do you think should be improved in nature conservation systems and biodiversity of natural ecosystems in addition to just increasing financial outlays on nature conservation policies conducted by government agencies and ministries of the environment?
A significant part of financial expenditures of nature conservation and biodiversity policy is devoted to the promotion of nature protection and natural environment protection issues. However, the effectiveness of this type of promotional campaigns is low, because without applying legal restrictions, enterprises do not change their technologies to be more ecological if they do not see in this business realized in a short time. Even the occasional UN climate summits in which government representatives from the majority of countries take part do not cause significant real changes in the policy of nature protection and biodiversity? Usually, the largest industrial economies in the world do not sign the obligations of rapid reduction of greenhouse gases and the issue of increasing spending on environmental innovation in the energy sector. Why, despite the growing scale of public awareness, there is no significant improvement in the implementation of nature conservation and biodiversity policy, there are no real measures that would result in a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the slowing of the global warming process?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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In my opinion, the key determinants of improving the effectiveness of environmental policy and institutional systems for the protection of nature and biodiversity of natural ecosystems, protection of the biosphere and climate of the planet Earth include: increasing general social awareness of pro-environmental greenhouse gas emissions, reducing the level of environmental pollution, creating solutions for the reclamation of civilization degraded areas of the natural environment, implementing eco-innovations and energy technologies on an industrial scale based on the development of renewable energy sources, including development of energy based on the combustion of hydrogen with oxygen, etc.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Say a researcher was interested in determining the number of adults vs. juveniles of species X trapped during a small mammal survey. Does there exist a relatively reliable way of doing this based on standard field measurements?
Let’s say a total of 200 individuals of species X were sampled, and the following data recorded: sex, total length, tail length, hind foot length, ear length, and weight. For the sake of this question imagine no additional data is available (e.g. additional observations recorded in the field, access to collected specimen material, etc.).
  1. Is there a way to ascertain a point or “threshold” from a range of data based on the distribution of values to distinguish between juvenile and adult individuals with a meaningful degree of accuracy? For example, male species X with weight > 142 g = adults; < 142 g = juveniles.
  2. If yes, which of these measurements would be most indicative? Or perhaps a combination/ratio of more than one (e.g. ratio of hind foot length to ear height > 1 = adult, etc.)?
Thanks, and looking forward to the feedback.
Evan
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Search :
Crouched Locomotion in Small Mammals: The Effects of Habitat and Aging
by Angela M Horner (2010)
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This picture is collected from a rice field which is heavily infected by sheath blight disease. Rice sheath is completely blighted due to this disease. The structure is formed on blighted and dried rice sheath. I have never seen such type of structure before. Could you please help me identify the structure from attached picture?
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Thank you Yuriy Kotlyar for your comment.
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Another way of phrasing this question would be: Is there a chance that a transformed plasmid with homologous sequences does not recombine with the chromosomal DNA? If so, will a cell still be selected due to the plasmid vector containing the selectable marker? Accordingly, if previous statements are true, would one have to run multiple samples through a gel and select the colony without the plasmid (my guess)?
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I have constructed several mutants in S. aureus and P. aeruginosa using the allele replacement techniques (double recombination). The plasmids I used had a temperature-sensitive origin of replication, so when you shift the temperature you get rid of the plasmids and conserved the clones with recombined fragments.
However, even when you think you had got rid of the plasmid, you need to screen several clones with PCR to identify the good clones because the plasmid in some clones mutate and become resistant to temperature. Even when you don't use this approach of temperature-sensitive plasmid, you need to screen with PCR to identify the good clones that have the recombinant fragment and not the plasmid.
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Hello, research community,
I am looking for some open problems in bioinformatics specifically in the area of, but not limited to, proteomics, and genomics. Since I am new to this area, any useful suggestions, a discussion on open problems and relevant resources are welcome.
Thanks.
Rahul
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examples:
Protein structure prediction
single cell RNA/DNA unsupervised learning/clustering
correlation of gene expression & variation with clinical outcomes
many more open problems tbh
e.g. see DeepVariant by google research
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Hello all,
I am attempting to determine the concentration of B. diminuta bacteria in an inoculated broth after 24 hours at 30 C on a shaking incubator by performing a spot plate of diluted samples and back calculating the original concentration. When I perform this, I am consistently getting very high CFU/mL values of approx. 1x10^11 CFU/mL. Can someone look over my experiment and tell me if I am making an error somewhere or is this value correct?
1) Inoculate 500 mL of Saline Lactose broth with inoculating loop dipped in pre-prepared glycerol stock of B. diminuta. Incubate on shaking incubator for 24 hrs. at 110 rpm.
2) Make eight 10x serial dilutions from 10^-1 to 10^-8 using 5 mL in 45 mL peptone water (1 g/L).
3) Plate 20 uL of each dilution in duplicate on Tryptic Soy Agar plates, allow to dry for approx. 5 minutes, and place in static incubator upside down for 18-24 hours or until colonies are visible for count.
4) Count the average # of colonies per dilution and calculate the CFU/mL using the following calculation: CFU per ml = Average number of colonies for a dilution x 50 x dilution factor.
Example: 10^-8 dilution average colonies: 19, (19 x 50 x 10^-8) = 9.5 x 10^10 CFU/mL.
Thank you for any assistance you can offer
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As Michael said, 10E11 cfu/ml seems well beyond what one would expect.
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Hi, I'm an undergraduate majoring in biology. I'm passionate about molecular cell biology (basically anything inside Bruce Alberts molecular cell biology) and was wondering, what are the big question in this field that has not been discovered? are there still unknown molecular mechanism that needs to be studied?
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Hi. There are still 5 things we don't know about cells. See the link below to have full details:
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Hello, I'm an early career PhD student. When people ask me questions e.g. In conference or lab meeting, even when I know the answer my mind tends to go blank and I say I don't know just to get out of the situation. I used to be good at answering questions and taking time to think and answer , especially during my bachelors degree. As time was gone by I feel I have gotten worse mainly because I am afraid the answer will be ridiculous and made fun of as I have reached a very advanced level where everyone knows what they are talking about. After all these years sometimes I get tired of science in general and have no motivation to read up on my project , so sometimes I genuinely don't know the answers which makes things worse . I used to have a lot of passion which is what put me on this path, but at the moment I'm tired of science which is making it hard to answer peoples questions and i think people are starting to notice. My answers are generally non specific and waffley, and I was wondering if anyone has tips to overcome these problems. I am interested in my project and deep down I love science and wish I could do better and go back to how I used to be and express my answers logically and what is expected at this level. This is especially important for my thesis defense, I need help and tips please on how others process these questions and defend their work. This problem has also started to overflow into my writing where I can't think properly or focus with the overwhelming amount of information.
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Also to defeat fear, you must program your mind. Mind preparation is a strategy to defeat fear.Tell yourself you can do it. Don't limit yourself, you will be amaze what you can do when you program your mind.
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I read this report that 3% (v/v) Ethanol increases recombinant protein expression in Escherichia coli. The SDS PAGE gels seem pretty convincing (1).
However, assuming I get great expression of recombinant protein with 3% (v/v) Ethanol, how am I supposed to decontaminate the biohazardous cell waste from the experiment?
Bleach decontamination isn't a good idea because bleach would react with the ethanol.
Autoclave decontamination isn't a good idea because ethanol is flammable.
Is safety just not a priority?
Source:
1) Chhetri G, Kalita P, Tripathi T. An efficient protocol to enhance recombinant protein expression using ethanol in Escherichia coli. MethodsX. 2015;2:385-391. Published 2015 Oct 8. doi:10.1016/j.mex.2015.09.005
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Hi Adron Ung . The reactions of bleach and ethanol I have seen contain at least 70% ethanol. I'm skeptical that 3% ethanol + bleach could cause significant production of dangerous chemicals.
But you can always keep the 3% ethanol + bleach waste in a fume hood overnight just to be on the safe side.
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Hi All, I am working with A549 cell line and trying to culture spheroids using low attachment 96 well plates. So far I have attempted some different seeding densities from 2000 to 10,000 cells and can either form very large spheroids (700-900um), which are more compact and have a spherical defined shape, or alternatively smaller spheroids (still fairly big though around 500um) are less compact and not completely spherical. However for my experiment where I wish to add drug compounds (2D IC50 approx 1uM) I am not observing significant size/morphology change on the larger spheroids despite at least a 10uM concentration for 1 week. I am thinking possibly I can try to treat smaller spheroids for a more obvious visual change. Does anyone know how i might successfully make small compact spheroids (less than 500um) which are reproducible with this cell line? Thanks in advance for any help someone may be able to provide.
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Hi Sophie, I have worked with this cell line and also for spheroid formation in my Ph.D. thesis, So I suggested you control the cell number when you going to seed in 96 well, this in turn leads to control the size of the spheroid, however, if you use microfluidics or lab on chip systems you can generate a huge number of the spheroid in one chip and also control the size of the spheroid, one of the main factor in drug screening studies (larger than 400 um in size spheroid are not suitable as the cells in core zone can not access to nutrients and drug and also they are under hypoxia),
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During my first year of M. Sc. of Biology this year (2021), I did an exercise to learn how to write a grant proposal.
I wanted to do it on a topic which seem "taboo" : HUMAN OVERPOPULATION.
Could you share some references about this topic please ?
Like Climate Change, I think this topic is very urgent to discuss, to treat.
I share my modest, naive and fictive work on it.
Thanks for your collaboration.
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Hello Setha; There is an utterly massive literature on the subject. You might try going on Google Scholar and entering "Optimum human population size". ...or similar terms. Read stuff from the last 3 or 4 years and you'll get some ideas.
The subject is touchy politically but demographers and ecologists have been thinking about it for ages. Best regards, Jim Des Lauriers
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Hello everyone. Can someone please tell me, is there any database of research projects from where I may get details of various ongoing or completed projects?
Thank you very much!
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In my opinion, the issue of ecology should be added or extended to educational programs, including issues related to greenhouse gas emissions, faster global warming process, indispensability of implementation and development of ecological energy innovations based on renewable energy sources, improvement of degraded reclamation techniques civilization of the natural environment, sorting garbage, recycling, the need to reduce the use of plastic in product packaging, etc.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Should the scope of environmental education in schools be increased?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Dear Dr.Dariusz Prokopowicz,
I consider it necessary to implement programs that affect the safeguarding of our Ecosystem for our students, and our future as human beings also goes into this. In Among the advisable activities, we could propose: 1.-Visits to Aquariums as an educational activity. 2.-visits to thematic museums or exhibitions on Ecology. 3.- Hiking and outings to the countryside, the mountains or the sea. 4.-Activities that require the search and elimination of invasive plants. 5.- Organize groups of volunteers to clean up polluted beaches and rivers. 6.-Publicize the groups of environmental associations and interact with them. 7.- Promote agricultural activities with the creation of small gardens in the Schools, and if possible, in planting trees.
With all my respect
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I interesting in the biology of fish now, have some things, I don't understand about maturity fish. How do we know or make sure that the L50 assessment is really mature fish if not using the GSI method? please
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Good question...
As someone pointed out clearly, histology of gonads can be used to see whether fish is matured or not. But again, the question comes why you want to see the maturity in fish? Do you want to do any experiments or want to do some breeding trials? If your interest is to do the breeding, then try to notice the body colour and behavioural patterns. In general, most fish exhibits a change in body colour when they get matured; but again depends on the species...
Hope my answer is useful...Good luck!
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Hi,
I and working on a project for extraterrestrial life, and i need few work on the titled topic. If is there any data, recommend it or please discuss the evaluation mechanism.
Thank you,
Muhammad Furqan Ali
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You can search for the following articles: National Environmental and Natural Resources Information System Environment and Temperature Report, light, atmosphere, wind
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The bacteria contains two megaplasmids, one of which is 233kb. Using a Qiagen miniprep kit with spin columns, is it possible to elute even a small amount of DNA this large? Are there any modifications to be made which do not involve obtaining the anion-exchange kits designed for large constructs?
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lyse and neutralize your plasmids using kits reagents then take the supernatant and perform phenol chloroform extraction followed by ethanol precipitation and get pure DNA extracted of any size.
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Biology Experimental, Theretical and Philisophical question.
Might contribute to understanding the unicellular organisms source and properties.
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we believe the DNA comes from originally proteins or catalytic RNA which means it may act for themselves. the carbon baswe molecule was prefered for instability and flexibility,however it is still a mystery why would all be made of carbon(there are interesting theories on why we have a collision of two planets which are becoming separate and may be wby it is of carbon. Mainly a question on probability. Could it be a high probability on carbon source?). this self acting molecule, protein/catalytic RNA, which is tve basic unit of making proteins in eukaryotes and not on procaryotes. we think the origin of virus comes from this point,but we are still unsure of it. the molecule a triangle of carbon is the origin of all carbon forms of life,but we are still unsure on why the steps are as it is. this molecule of rna and protein. comes from the cooling and veating of the primitive atmosphere, which combined the elements as it is. experiments have been made to prove frankestein in the 1900, and resulted in a very high coincidence. the balances (and very ineficient) forms of energy made first the plants and then the animals, the more complex the longer it took. the triangle of carbon adapted to make the famous bonds of 4 of the life molecule. the self acting molecule (which made possible the vaccine of moderna of covid) is made from the experiment of frankeistein. the combination and likelyhood of carbon molecules and the balances in energy made the protein/rna and later on the bacteria/plant. the most primitive form of energy is a short version of the glucose molecule, but there was an explosion of energy, and the plants staeted to populate the earth,leaving the rest of bacteria to small and imposible areas to live. the primitive choloroplast comes from cianobqcteria which have been fused by the theory of lynn margulis. the same of the mitochondria. horizantal transfer of genetic material. the rest of the species survive by the theory of charles darwin. the plants filled the atmosohere with oxygen, it requires more energy but it is more efficient. the rest of the acellular agents,prions, siRNA, viriods,virioids,comes from the mix of rna/protein,which means it can act by themselves. we speculate venus was rhe best planet for life and the next one,mars. we are unsure of the storm (the red spot)in jupiter are the balances of energy on earth.
why do we think the only life on earth is the only way of life,and why do we rhink life is impossible if not as it is?
I hope this clears anything
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We're working with the lovely garden eels: snake-like fishes that live in big colonies, attached to the sandy sea bottom. They feed on plankton and hide in their burrows whenever something big approaches. Here's a small video of them: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v2WEkd9qMlw
To test whether they're using social information in their evasive behaviour, we found an edge of the colony and, after satying put for 3 minutes to ensure they were not hiding at that point, one of us slowly approached until the first eel retracted. We marked that point as our zero. Then, we marked the positions where the closest and farthest eels hide. We then measured the distances between our zero and the closest (Ri), and farthest (R1) points.
Now, our null hypothesis is that if Ri and R1 are equal, the information (the evasive behaviour) is not spreading, and therefore there's no use of social information. Our H1, then, is that if information is spreading, R1 > Ri. As every pair of R1 and Ri was taken at the same time, respect to the same point of reference (zero), and our data did not pass the Shapiro normality test, we're considering a paired Wilcoxon test. Is this appropiate? Our sample size is 68.
Thank you in advance.
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Yes, the wilcoxon test is appropriate for matched pairs of non-normally distributed data.
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What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Protection of the natural environment, natural biological ecosystems and biodiversity?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Protection of the natural environment, natural biological ecosystems and biodiversity.
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
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Dear Bharath Setturu,
Thank you for the link to the interesting publication provided:
My Village Biodiversity: Documentation of Western Ghats Biodiversity through Network of Students and Teachers.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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As far as I know it has been dismissed as a closed cased of the history of science having no defenders left. However, that's not the feeling I get when the issue comes up in private discussions. I'm wondering if I have missed something, and if and how vitalism (or some refined modern form of it) is still considered to be a viable option by some biologists?
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Quazi-vitalistic areas full of numerous objects of description, which may be dismembered as an object by any briefly coherent subject, remain as the only evidence of which, as a human person, is a scalp or a corpse. McCarthy's psychopaths — restricted to Judge Holden's and Anton Chigurh's "cases studies" — are the incarnations of an alarming materialism and an immoral or amoral geology in which Darwinian evolution culminated in a corrupted "pinnacle."
Jane Bennett argues that by 'Vitality' is meant the power of things — foods, commodities, storms, metals, biology journals— not only to hinder, obstruct the will and the plans of people, but also to operate as Virtuality in the throttle valve of Actualization.
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The lock and key theory on enzymes has shortcomings because it is unable to explain the stability of the enzyme when the enzyme reaction points are switched, then the induction theory is able to answer the shortcomings of the padlock theory. So, does the theory of induction fit actually have flaws? If so, what are the shortcomings of induction fit theory? And of the two theories, which one theory better explains how enzymes work? Thank you.
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In the lock-and-key model, the enzyme-substrate interaction suggests that the enzyme and the substrate possess specific complementary geometric shapes that fit exactly into one another. Like a key into a lock, only the correct size and shape of the substrate (the key) would fit into the active site (the keyhole) of the enzyme (the lock). It shows the high specificity of enzymes. However, it does not explain the stabilization of the transition state that the enzymes achieve. The induced-fit model suggests that the active site continues to change until the substrate is completely bound to the active site of the enzyme, at which point the final shape and charge are determined. Unlike the lock-and-key model, the induced fit model shows that enzymes are rather flexible structures.
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We know that the brain sends and directs meaningful messages to control the patient's cells.
as we know, The brain is affected by factors such as diseases And we know that the brain also controls other organs of the body.nevertheless,Damage to the CELLS is visible on eeg?
Is Cancer Effective In EEG?
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I think it does effect. (stomach cancer?)
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As my experience and many consumer experience they feel the different taste of the same item served cooked in a different source, is it real or not, what is the reason behind this.
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In order to settle this issue, it would be necessary to investigate whether there are any physico-chemical different processes taking place during the heat treatment of prepared dishes for different variants of this action, i.e. depending on the use of different types of fuel (biofuel, wood, charcoal, dried manure, etc. ). If, in the course of the aforementioned preparation of certain food products, grilling or frying is used, then certain chemical compounds contained in the fuels used for heating the prepared dishes may get into the prepared dishes, food products and thus the taste changes.
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Hello all,
I am conducting a network analysis on significantly upregulated genes through Metascape's PPI network algorithm. It generates some beautiful and very biologically relevant (looking at least) gene interaction networks. However, I am a bit wary of making any strong conclusions based on it.
Does anyone have experience with Metascape? How reliable the networks are and what can be done to convince someone (potential reviewers) that they are showing the true biology?
I would really appreciate any insights.
Thank you,
Best,
Sandeep
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In consideration with Mª Angeles Zorrilla Lopez-Perea
R-Studio is the best one and available for free access.
Thanks
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I'm looking for a reliable and practical method to evaluate the energetic profile (ATP, ADP, PCr, ...) in a tissue. ( HPLC ? Enzymatic kits ? ..)
Thank you.
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Thank you very much for your answers Yu. I'll look more into the mass spectrometry.
Have an excellent day !
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everyone has a certain strong statement and some heart touching thought for life, work research...many more whats your.
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Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala) in the noble Quran says:
"وَقُلِ اعْمَلُوا فَسَيَرَى اللَّهُ عَمَلَكُمْ وَرَسُولُهُ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَسَتُرَدُّونَ إِلَى عَالِمِ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ فَيُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ"
الآية (105) من سورة التوبة
This verse means: "Work (righteousness): Soon will Allah observe your work, and His Messenger, and the Believers: Soon will ye be brought back to the knower of what is hidden and what is open: then will He show you the truth of all that ye did."
So, Sooner or later, we will be asked about everything in our life.
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How can/should we distinguish between a Biochemical and a Chemical Reaction.
As per one explanation:-
Chemical reactions are discrete reactions with catalyst involved in the process where as in biochemical reactions there are a series of reactions involved with the product of one acting as the substrate for another and this complex process of interchanges taking place with the involvement of enzymes.
For a more specific example if we are conducting photosynthesis in vitro then it will be considered as a biochemical reaction rather than a chemical reaction.
But the dilemma stems from the fact that, even chemical reactions go through complex series of steps, like any organic synthesis reaction. In this case also there is the involvement of catalysts like enzymes. Thus, can we consider it as a biochemical reaction! But mostly we only attribute it to be a chemical reaction which is indeed the case.
So, what is the proper difference or point of distinction between a biochemical and a chemical reaction. How can we exactly relate that one reaction is a biochemical and the other is chemical!
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Dear @Mrutyunjaya Panda All biochemical reactions are chemical reactions. I agree with Dr @Frank T. Edelmann in that in principle, there is no major difference. The same reaction can occur 'in vivo' and 'ex vivo'. You can also access a similar discussion at the following link:
Best wishes, AKC
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I've used phyre2 to model the protein for the simulation using Gromacs, but later I found that 2/3 proportion of the structure ( except for IDR ) had been already determined by X-ray crystallography.
The known structure contains Zn2+ to stabilize the structure of the entire protein, so I doubt phyre2 can predict decent structure. How should I model the structure of proteins using a known structure as a part of it?
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I have predictions from mathematical models in the systems biology field, not yet confirmed experimentally. However, I would like to publish in pee-review journals free from publication charges.
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Web of Science Master Journal List - WoS MJL by Clarivate:
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Hi,
I am doing a short survey with some of my friends in order to understand the need of researchers (from fabrication point of view). Ideally, our target audience is anyone who does fabrication or would like to use fabricated samples. It would be great if you could share your experience and fill this survey. In addition, we would really appreciate if you can pass it on to your friends/professors – they could be chemist/physicist/biologist/electronics device people etc. anyone as long as you think they fit in target audience.
Thanks a lot, really appreciate your help.
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THANK YOU I APPRECIATE
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The very interesting Hypothesis about Fungi on Mars was considered in the preprint "Fungi on Mars? Evidence of Growth and Behavior From Sequential Images" :
What is your opinion regarding this? I think that use AI/ML image recognition can be the next step of study this hypothesis until NASA will check this idea with help rovers on Mars. As input data for ML need use similar images of similar Fungi on Eart.
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If the fungi are found on the Mars, it means that Carbon and Nitrogen are present there.
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What is the actual process to construct a standard achievement test at secondary level?
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Thank you very much.....@Cristian Ramos-Vera
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when I wash the cells that emit fluorescent by PBS for flowcytometry, emittion of rhodamine b is very low
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I am not sure if rhodamine b are sensitive to substances like washing, buffer or even PBS. Make sure the fluorophore is hold tight on the sample.
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I am looking for an article that talks about the direct interaction of a nanoparticle and sars cov-2, but most of the articles talk about target proteins attached to gold nanoparticles, but I'm only looking for the interaction of sars cov2 with the nanoparticles. but I can't find that paper if exist.
(am trying to see the interaction in a solution of gold nanoparticles stabilized with povidone to see if they form clousters or how they interact in general)
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Dear Juan carlos Dominguez Solis
Nanoparticle-Based Strategies to Combat COVID-19
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In the multi-million year history of life on Earth there have been 5 great extinctions of species of fauna and flora.
In the context of human civilization activity and the rapidly progressing process of global warming, has the 6th species died out?
Please reply
Best wishes
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The mass extinction of pollinating insects, including bees, in recent years is particularly worrying. The extinction of pollinating insects over the last few decades is one of the significant problems of the decline in the biodiversity of natural ecosystems and generates a strong increase in the risk of a decline in the productivity of agricultural crops. In the future, the issue of decreasing numbers of pollinating insects and falling rainfall, more frequent droughts, falling soil moisture, and soil barrenness may significantly reduce the production of agricultural crops and problems with feeding people. This problem can be particularly acute in poor countries located in the tropical and subtropical climates.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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As i know , if we can realize the DNA structure , we can simulate it in computer . then we can try to rebuild it if possible .
so Given the technological progress, is it possible in the future?
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Compared to various living organisms characterized by a much lower level of organization and body structure, the human body has limited regenerative abilities. However, along with technological advances, in medicine, genetics, microbiological tests, etc., the possibilities of transplanting various organs, limbs, growing specific types of tissues and rebuilding certain parts of the human body are gradually increasing. One of the most difficult and perhaps impossible to implement in the future is the rebuilding of the central nervous system, including the human brain. Similarly, it will be extremely difficult in the future to build artificial awareness in artificial neural network systems as a continuation of the progress made in the development of artificial intelligence.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Protection of the environment, natural ecosystems and biodiversity should be an integral part of the concept of sustainable pro-ecological economic development?
In the context of growing and increasing environmental pollution and declining areas of natural ecosystems, the importance and need to improve environmental protection systems, natural ecosystems and biodiversity is increasing. Biodiversity is one of the most important issues of natural ecosystems and life on Earth. Maintaining high biodiversity on Earth should be a challenge and one of the main goals of human functioning on the Earth in the 21st century and in subsequent centuries.
In connection with the above, protection of the environment, natural ecosystems and biodiversity should be an integral part of the concept of sustainable ecological development. In some countries, the concept of sustainable pro-ecological economic development is implemented successively, primarily in the field of renewable energy sources, improvement of waste segregation techniques and recycling development. However, in many countries these issues are still insufficiently developed.
Still too small financial resources are allocated in many countries for the development of renewable energy sources, improvement of waste segregation and recycling techniques. In addition to the private sector, besides enterprises implementing ecological innovations, it is necessary to increase expenditures and develop strategic pro-ecological reform projects, including restructuring of the mining industry of minerals supplying classic energy sources and development of energy based on renewable energy sources. This development should be supported and coordinated by environmentally friendly state intervention, and due to the high investment costs of construction of power plants producing electricity from renewable energy sources should be co-financed from the state public finance funds.
In this way, it will be possible to slow down the ongoing global warming process in the 21st century and thus slow down the process of devastating the natural environment, draining green areas characterized by high biodiversity. Biodiversity is a very important issue in the context of the analysis of ecology, sustainable development and the protection of the natural environment, including, in particular, the natural positions of biologically complex ecosystems, i.e. those that are characterized by high biodiversity. Maintaining biodiversity of natural ecosystems is one of the most important problems and tasks for people in the 21st century.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In the context of the above considerations, the following question is still valid:
How to increase the effectiveness of environmental protection programs, natural ecosystems and biodiversity?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Dear Dariusz Prokopowicz Environmental degradation, ecological imbalances, and loss of biodiversity have occurred throughout the world. There is intense pressure on natural resources. One way is to alleviate such pressure. The second approach relates to implementation and adoption of government supported participatory community approach; this will enhance effectiveness of programs related to protection of environment, ecosystem and biodiversity.
Best regards, AKC
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The current technological revolution, known as Industry 4.0, is determined by the development of the following technologies of advanced information processing: Big Data database technologies, cloud computing, machine learning, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence, Business Intelligence and other advanced data mining technologies.
In view of the above, what kind of information technologies from the Industry 4.0 range and how will they help to protect the natural environment and biodiversity?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Technologies of the current fourth technological revolution. ICT, Internet and Industry 4.0 information technologies are used to improve the systems for analyzing the condition of the biosphere and climate, the condition of natural ecosystems, analyzing changes in the state of biodiversity, the scale of environmental pollution, the impact of negative factors of civilization development on specific natural sites, green areas, etc. Thanks to the improvement of technology diagnostic condition of the biosphere, it is possible to plan more precisely systemic programs and instruments for environmental protection, reclamation of natural ecosystem environments degraded in terms of civilization.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Biodiversity is diverse in virtually unlimited degree, which results from the essence of processes of evolution of species, filet lines and entire ecosystems. It is thanks to the millions of years of evolutionary processes on Earth that there are so many different natural and highly diverse ecosystems in which different species of flora, fauna, fungi and microorganisms adapt to life in different and very diverse geographical and climatic environments.
The largest biodiversity of ecosystems and species functions in natural environmental environments in which ecosystems have evolved without human impact through millions of years of climatic and geographical conditions enabling the development of various life forms. These types of high biodiversity sites can be found in unpolluted rainforest ecosystems in tropical forests, in temperate climates and in coral reefs.
Unfortunately, human civilization activity contributes to the successive and accelerating process of biodiversity reduction by dying out species of living organisms. The areas of natural natural ecosystems are decreasing, including those in which the greatest biodiversity is diagnosed, such as the rainforests of the Amazon. The protection of naturalistic ecosystems and thus the protection of the planet's biodiversity is the most important challenge for mankind in the 21st century.
Do you agree with my opinion on this matter?
In view of the above, I am asking you the following question:
What do you think is the importance of biodiversity in natural ecosystems?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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I agree Danung Nur Adli
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Influence of ligand on an heterogeneous catalyst surface reactivity
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Thank you for sharing idea Madhukar Baburao Deshmukh
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Hello everyone,
I am currently looking to get a column for the purification of my protein complex (approx. 1MDa in size, 7 proteins) that I'm tagging with a twin strep tag, by tagging one of the proteins on the complex, but I'm unsure about which column to get as this is my first time doing this type of purification.
I saw that IBA Life Sciences and Cytiva make streptactin columns, but the details are a bit confusing as there is a lot of variety with the type of columns that they offer. I also can't seem to find any other providers of these Strep-tag columns.
So please if you can help, let me know which column would be best for my purifications, and whether there are other providers.
Thank you!
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Hi Wissam,
I have been using the TwinStrep for several protein purifications setups in the last couple of years and had really convincing results so far by using resins from IBA. In fact, I guess that the TwinStrep technique itself was developed by IBA lifesciences- so I would stick with resins of this manufacturer since the are designed to provide optimal performance in combination with the TwinStrep Tag, which I guess is not explicitly the case with Cytiva resins.
For your application I would suggest using StrepTactin XT 4 flow resins, which are supposedly beneficial for large proteins as you are purifying this rather big complex
see here for information
Hope that helps! :)
Cheers,
Pascal
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I have just observed on the number of strawberries I was able to eat today that:
-when you carefully take the leaves off the strawberry
-the back of the strawberry shows a pentagonal shape
See picture
Any biological article on this observation?
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Frankly, I liked the topic, so I opened the refrigerator to eat strawberries and made sure of the correctness of your comment 🍓🍓🥀
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I come from a chemistry background and so I’m used to thinking in terms of proportions, so forgive me if my thinking is completely wrong.
***
I’d like to simulate a reaction that occurs in the human body. I will keep the pH and temperature the same as it is in the human body so the enzyme can function optimally, it is a lactonase enzyme found in human blood so I think these 2 factors wil be important.
From what I understand enzymes can become saturated and won’t work once they reach this point so there is some logic behind my thinking.
Therefore there must be an ideal or threshold amount of the enzyme to use.
***
Generally how is this calculated?
Is it per mol? Or is it specific for each enzyme and the task it performs?
I am struggling to find any information about this on the web and so would appreciate some insight into this problem.
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You have a misconception, which I totally understand due to your background. When the enzymes become "saturated" it doesn't mean they "don't work". They will keep working, the reactions will still occur, it's just that the speed of the reaction won't increase any further even if you add more substrate.
Enzymes are not consumed in reactions. They're like workers in a factory, they process the material (substrate) into product, but they themselves are not consumed to become product. So the amount of workers will remain the same over time.
Now, if you have a lot of workers and little material, many of them will just lazy around doing nothing. In this situation, if you add more material, those free workers will get to work, and you produce the product faster.
But, if you keep adding material faster, at some point all the workers will be busy. At that point, even if you pile another mountain of material at the gate every minute, the speed that you produce the product will not increase any further. We refer to this situation as the enzyme is "saturated". Make no mistake, even when it's "saturated", the production is still occurring. And if you stop adding material (substrate), the backlog of substrate you have already added will slowly be processed by the enzyme until all of it becomes product.
So in the end, you'll get your reaction and your product no matter how much enzyme you add. Even if it's just 1 molecule of enzyme, it will get the job done, eventually. The only difference is time, i.e. how long you have to wait until that amount of substrate you added turns into product. We usually refer to this speed as "enzyme unit", or U. 1 U of an enzyme means that if all those enzyme molecules get to work (equivalent to enzyme saturation), they will convert 1 micromole of substrate per minute to product.
So the amount of enzyme you need to use all comes down to how long you prefer to wait. If, for example, you have 300 micromoles of substrate, and you only want to wait 20 minutes for the reaction to end, you will need to add:
Amount of enzyme = 300/20 = 15 (U)
Please understand that this is just a grossly simplified explanation of the most basic. When you get to the actual enzyme speed, there are a bunch of other factors you need to mind, such as the chance of collision between enzyme and substrate molecules (which depends on temperature and dilution, similar to normal chemical reaction), the nature of the enzyme (which determines how stickily it catch the substrate molecule when they collide or whether they'll just bounce off each other, how stickily the product bounds to the enzyme and delays further substrate coming in, whether the enzyme needs to change its structure and therefore requires a recovery time, etc.), how many substrates take part in the reaction, the presence of inhibitor/inducer, etc. It can get complicated super fast and there's a whole field of study for it. If you're interested in it, you can start by learning about Michaelis–Menten kinetics, which is the most fundamental of them all.
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What is the current evidence regarding the relationship between telomere shortening and exercise??
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What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Protection of biodiversity and natural ecosystems?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Protection of biodiversity and natural ecosystems.
Please reply.
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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effects of ocean sprawl...Continued human population growth and associated development of coasts and offshore waters have led to marine and coastal environments that are increasingly dominated by artificial (engineered) structures, termed “ocean sprawl” (Duarte et al., 2012, Firth et al., 2016a)... Firth, L. B., Knights, A. M., Bridger, D., Evans, A., Mieskowska, N., Moore, P. J., ... & Hawkins, S. J. (2016). Ocean sprawl: challenges and opportunities for biodiversity management in a changing world.
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What disciplines, areas of contemporary economic systems, industries, etc. will in the 21st century develop the model of sustainable pro-ecological economic development according to the concept of green economy?
In connection with the progressing global warming and the increase in the risk and frequency of climate disasters, it is necessary to implement pro-ecological reforms as soon as possible into economic processes. First of all, renewable energy sources should be developed, replacing the classic energy based on the burning of minerals. In addition, it is necessary to improve the technology of automation and robotization in the processes of waste segregation, recycling and re-use of various types of raw materials. Also, electromobility, ecological agriculture, zero-energy construction, etc. should be developed.
In recent years ecological innovations have been created mainly in the field of renewable energy sources, improvement of waste segregation techniques, recycling, treatment of polluted water, reclamation of a devastated natural environment, energy-efficient construction, electromobility etc. However, more and more eco-innovations, new technological solutions, technical improvements which is part of sustainable ecological development, is also created in many other fields of science.
In view of the above, are examples of pro-ecological undertakings, technological improvements compatible with sustainable ecological development or ecological innovations that are also created in one of the following or other related fields of science, for example: Molecular Biology, Biotechnology, Anthropology Theory, Medicine, Electrical Engineering , Artificial Intelligence, Genetics, Business Administration, Risk Management, Big Data, Business Intelligence, Automation & Robotics, Climatology, Agriculture, Biophysics, Biochemistry, Medical Intelligence, Artificial Neural Networks, Ecosystem Analysis, Power Engineering, Construction, Food production, Forest ecology, Biology, Geoscience, Government Programs, Behavioral Sciences, Biodiversity Assessment, Green Architecture, Greenhouse, Waste, Household Products, Information Society, Innovation Management, International Entrepreneurship, Internet Technologies, Knowledge Creation, Bioelectric Energy gy Sources, Business Model Innovation, Cataclysmic Variables, Chromatography, Clean Energy, Cleantech, Climate Prediction, Collaborative Innovation, Commercialization, Computational Intelligence, Computer Science and Engineering, Conservation Biology, Consumer Behavior, Corporate Governance, Creative Economy, Crisis Communication, Cyber Security, Data Analysis, Database Administration, Development Cooperation, Digital Ecosystems, Economic Ecoindicators, Ecosystem Ecology, Energy Industry, Ecological Modeling Ecological Economics, Ecological Indicators, Discovery, Earth Sciences, Earthquake Forecasting and Geocataclysm, Econometric Analysis, Economic Integration, Economics of Innovation, Ecosystem Engineering, Electricity, Electronic Systems, Energetic Materials, Energy Technologies, Environment, Environmental Biodegradation, Flora, Food Consumption Life Sciences, Logistics Management, Materials for Sustainable Energy, Astronomy & Astrophysics, Nanomaterials, New Media Technology, Recycling, Physics of Global Warming, Plant Protection, Predicive Analytics, Production Planning, Project Development, Public Economics, Public Policy, Public Policy, Sociobiology, Space Science, Sustainable Agriculture, Sustainable Development Strategies, Technology Forecasting, Transport Economics, Water Resources, Weather Forecasting, Wildlife Conservation, World Economy, ...?
In view of the above, the current question is: What areas of knowledge will be involved in shaping sustainable pro-ecological economic development in the 21st century?
Please, answer, comments.
I invite you to the discussion.
Best wishes
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In order for the pro-ecological transformation of the traditional brown economy to a sustainable green economy / circular economy to run smoothly, it is necessary to increase the scale of implementing the principles of sustainable development, develop social environmental (ecological) responsibility, carry out pro-environmental reforms, create and implement eco-innovations in economic processes, etc. in various sectors. and economic sectors. In addition, the process of achieving the sustainable development goals should be carried out in the formula of integrated, correlated pro-environmental processes of implementing green business ventures and investment projects implemented in various industries and sectors of the economy. It is necessary to develop pro-environmental state intervention, under which the state should inspire, co-finance, motivate and integrate the implementation of green economic ventures.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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In a study involving 4 variables (species(2x), temperature(2x), nutrients(2x) and light(3x)), 3 by 3 variables, for example, "species", "temperature" and "nutrients" are significant. I end up with 12 post-hoc tables referring to the possible interactions. Now, I would like to show these pieces of information in a scientific paper format and not insert 12 tables in the manuscript. Is there a way to show up these results in a concise way? Is there any biology paper related which exemplifies a similar situation?
Thank you very much for your help.
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Hello,
I am trying to find kinetic information (such as rate of enzyme production etc.) on the expression of taq polymerase in E-Coli after inserting a recombinant plasmid.
Any help would be appreciated
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You need precision and technique
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.
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The incorporation of benzimidazoles in the casing gave promising results. Benomyl at the rate of 0.95 g/m2, and carbendazim and thiabendazole at the rate of 0.62 g/m2, were effective in controlling wet bubble disease (Nair and Baker, 1978).
In addition, if no products were applied during casing and a small area showed some traits of wet bubble disease, you can follow this method:
Cover the diseased area to at least 5 cm beyond the edge with a double thickness paper tissue damped in water for easy handling and positioning. In case there is some mushrooms growing beneath the paper, break their connection with the casing layer to inhibit growth.
If the diseased area is wide, better to terminate the crop at the end of the flush and in case you want to continue with another flush, consider avoiding watering.
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I have had unheard of success with protein crystallography lately from a super successful protein expression and purification batch.
I have attained a lately reproducible vast amount of crystals of no average size. Is there a way to tell based on appearance which of these crystals should diffract the best?
All these crystals grow from a clear droplet in 12 hours.
What's the most important parameter?
* transparency?
* size?
* how intensely it reflects light? birefringence?
* geometry?
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Hi there, Unfortunately there is absolutely no link between the size and appearance of a crystal and its ability to diffract. Gorgeous crystals may diffract very badly and little dirty bits may result in structure at 0.8A resolution (The opposite may also apply!).
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Dear Colleagues,
I am new to genes and genotyping and I need help. I am trying to figure our how AA, AG, and GG genotypes map on to A1 for DRD2/ANKK1 Taq1A polymorphism(rs1800497) and Val or MET for COMT Val158Metpolymorphism (rs4680). Where can I find this information presented in a way that a gene-naïve person will understand?
Thank you very much in advance,
Monika
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Hi Monika,
For me ensembl.org is the easiest. For example COMT
1. you search for the human gene
2. Open the gene file:
3. Select one of the longest and best annotated transcripts
4. Select cDNA in the left panel
If you don't see the SNPs go to Configure the Page and select Variants. If you prefer, you can visualize the SNPs as well in the gene view.
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Hi there, I have two bar chart figures I want to annotate to show significance, however, I’m unsure how to this correctly.
Figure 1 displays the visits counts (y-axis) of different species (x-axis) at different food types (legend). A chi-square test of association was used to determine the food preferences (food type) and different species.
Figure 2 displays the mean proportion of time vigilant (y-axis) of different species (x-axis). An independent samples kruskal wallis test was used, followed by a pairwise comparison, to determine significance differences in proportion of time vigilance between species.
I’m guessing ’*’ above columns show that they are significant. So would this be more appropriate in figure 1? Using letters, I’m guessing, would be more appropriate for figure 2. as it shows what groups are significantly different from one another. However, should I also use ‘*‘ in figure 2? Additionally, is it appropriate to use different forms of annotation between figures or does the format need to be consistent across figures?
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But talking about bar chart it means you are talking about frequency (mode) i.e hw many time(s) each observation you are representing occurs. since you have taken it to chi-square test, you can compare both calculated values with the tabulated values to see which one falls into acceptance or rejection region to whether you'll reject or accept at the whatever percentage you are working with.
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What do you think about the balance between exploring widely different designs vs. local optimization at different levels of biology (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, anatomy, etc.)? Which levels are more or less modular or plastic?
In the endocrine system, for example, one feels that having tropic hormones (i.e., those controlling the release of other signaling hormones at other glands) may offer a finer and perhaps more robust regulation, compared to a being where all hormones were non-tropic. However, the anatomic location of elements in these networks is not trivial. For example, in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renin is produced in the kidney, and aldosterone eventually exerts its effects in the kidney as well. However, the intermediate step by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mainly occurs in the lungs, which could introduce a delay in the regulation.
Do we have good explanations for the sites of production and action of different hormones in the body? Are there common principles to be learned as optimized by evolution in this respect? Or are happenstances/contingent evolution stronger determinants?
Thank you for sharing your thoughts!
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Hi everyone, I was wondering about the possibilities of performing numerical taxonomy with SPSS software. I would be very thankful to recieve advice!! For now I have been reading about hierarchical clustering, principal component and discriminant function analysis... Help!!
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There is a book called multivariate analysis where many examples are described. I think it can be helpful for you.
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The special Issue "Fibonacci and Lucas Numbers and the Golden Ratio in Physics and Biology"
is intended to be a repository for this question.
Apart from this opportunity to publish new results, I am much interested to have unsuspected answers about this subject.
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Each humans reaction sourced by nervous system so can we improve some bad habits or behavior of humans ?
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Study of neuro-science and medication accordingly help to change the behavior.
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There is a theory saying that emotions are controlled by the right side of the brain and logic is controlled by the other side. Is the brain really divided into two sides when it comes to controlling different aspects of human behaviour?
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Yes, scientifically its correct.
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Pesticides become prime compo in agricultural activities to meet the growing demand of the human population. But indiscriminate usage and mishandling led to two disasters in India such as Bhopal (MIC) and Kasaragood (Endosulfon) tragedy. Was there other disasters which were not reported?
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Can I quote this information in my research article?
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Hello,
I am not a biology researcher, but I am working in intradisciplinary research and would like to know the answer to this question, which I have not being able to understand.
This questions refers specifically to the coronavirus vaccines being developed functioning on a mRNA mechanism. I would like to know how the body differences the cells that are instructed to construct the spikes (which cells) and how they are biologically signaled to stop (certain proteins or a certain mechanism, so on).
I very much appreciate any input from researches on the field.
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Potentially every cell into which the m-RNA penetrates can produce coronavirus spike protein of the kind of virus of origin. Theoretically all cells of the body can be programmed to synthesize just virus proteins. This is potentially fatal for the funktion of the organs.
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Is any way or method to seal agarose pad or channels fabricated agarose gel pad to glass slides as like we do plasma bonding with PDMS to glass slides?.
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Good question
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What we see outside and what is detectable is generally a macro universe but there is so many undetectable micro universe ....what is that.
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Thanks a lot, dear all professors for your view.
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We all know the role of microbes its miniature of the miracle how it can be , used in revolutionizing science in various fields.
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Microbes function to maintain soil quality, plant growth, yield, and plant health. Microbes can fix atmospheric nitrogen, decompose organic wastes and residues, detoxify soil invaded with chemicals, suppress plant diseases and soilborne pathogens, enhance nutrient cycling, and produce bioactive compounds such as vitamins, hormones, and enzymes that stimulate plant growth.
The use of bio-inputs such as biofertilizers, biopesticides, and biodegraders comprising of beneficial microbes keeps our biogeochemical cycles alive by acting as miniature factories inside the soil and provides a continuous supply of nutrients as well as plant protection metabolites when required.
Panpatte, D. G., Jhala, Y. K., Shelat, H. N., & Vyas, R. V. (Eds.). (2018). Microorganisms for Green Revolution: Volume 2: Microbes for Sustainable Agro-ecosystem (Vol. 7). Springer.
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Many time during meditation whole body feels the flow of electricity like the thing is it bio electricity or something else why this occurs but after that generally, I felt so miracle experience....how and what is this...
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Thanks a lot, dear Abeer Haq for your wonderful answer.
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Could the presence of ligand on a catalyst surface reduced the reactivity of its surface? If yes/no, please explain why?
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this depends on which type of ligand used
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In my personal experience I have find the higher rate of sprouting when fresh cow dung is applied on the top side of cutting what might be its reason.
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Thanks a lot, dear professor Madhukar Baburao Deshmukh for your nice answer
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Do you think the plant can communicate with each other, what is the level of feeling in plants?
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The study reveals that plants communicate to each other through their roots.
Thanks!
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Hi,
we decided to go back to our origins and relaunched the Parrot Researchers Group. The mission of the Parrot Researchers Group (PRG; formerly known also as Working Group Psittaciformes or as Research Coordination Committee on Parrots) group is to establish and promote research needs and priorities, with particular attention to regional conservation strategies to the parrots of the world. To achieve this, the PRG
1) Promotes parrot research,
2) Establishes research needs and priorities, with particular attention to regional conservation strategies,
3) Identifies and addresses barriers to effective research and conservation of parrots (Psittaciformes).
The PRG is characterised by a regional approach, being organised in four regions (African, Australasian, Neotropical, and Indo-Malayan), a Wild Parrot Veterinary Section, and a Secretary Office that coordinates joint work.
You can read more about our specific objectives in our homepage:
or in the attachment.
We (405 members to date) are currently looking for more researchers to join the group. If you are interested, please, get in touch with me or any of the regional coordinators.
Any questions?
Looking forward to work together.
All the best, JUAN
Dr. Juan F. Masello
Justus Liebig University Giessen
Department of Animal Ecology & Systematics
Personal information, projects and publications
Burrowing Parrots & behavioural ecology
Penguins & energy landscapes
Prions & evolution
The Alliance of World Scientists
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Hi, thank you for your message. I've just sent you instructions per e-mil. Please, let me know any questions. Looking forward! Cheers, JUAN
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Even if behavior was "embodied", wouldn't the brain notice? YES, of course: then the BRAIN would become the better "vehicle" for remembering, thinking, and "time travel" (i.e. prospective memory) -- possible (and possibly trivial) sensori-motor components notwithstanding. [ I am really quite tired of the "embodied" conceptualizations (which have yet to be shown as non-fictions *). See my writings. No one has argued against the views/approaches (content) in these writings NOR accepted/liked/or adopted them (now 1+ years (or 5+ years, depending how you look at it) and counting). ]
* Footnote: All this nonsense is ALL because NO PSYCHOLOGY OUTLOOK (other than my own) "believes in" anything psychological, innately guided, and emerging with ontogeny (which is not tenable). (The idea that learning is literally nearly always "the same" (outside of clearly always being associative in nature) is preposterous (think of a two -year-old and an adolescent -- and imagine any systematic and universal instruction you credibly might posit). P.S. Relatedly : "Culture" does NOT directly impinge on the individual -- the actual Subject and ultimate, but absolutely necessary, unit of analysis &/or explanation (for Biology or for Science). All executive or "meta" processes can NOT be properly shown to be anything but homunculi.)
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Dear Gerry Leisman
NONE of what you say is contrary to what I say. I don't, for my most reasonable position, have to believe there are no connections in/to the greater body, JUST THAT THEY ARE LIKELY TRIVIAL AND NOT ALONE (there are plenty of reasons to believe there are the most significant representations in the brain). Neuroscience as a big help to psychology is unlikely (brain patterns are more sophisticated than we can make sense of -- they are LIKELY as sophisticated AS THE NUANCES OF BEHAVIOR PATTERNS THEMSELVES; and, to wit, I have written essays on this and have most-reasonably argued that you must know the BEHAVIOR __PATTERNS__ very well to know what the more obscure brain indicators may refer to -- and DO THIS for the most part, NOT the other way around.)
Sadly all these BIG BELIEFS in/of embodying "representation" in sensori-motor ways is just because you do not have a belief/presumption/assumption structure to believe what is VERY likely, biologically: THAT THERE ARE SUBTLE, BUT IMPORTANT BIOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR SHIFTS WITH ONTOGENY -- these likely BASIC perceptual shifts, in a significant sense originating FROM THE ORGANISM ITSELF in appropriate environments. You are not stage theorists, which essentially means you cannot see behavior __PATTERNS__ (a very rare term, and when used : not correctly) or anything else of the TRUE BIOLOGICAL NATURE OF BEHAVIOR __PATTERNS__ AND PATTERNINGS OF patterns. And, as you are thus separated from the biology of BEHAVIOR ("just behavior", BEHAVIOR PER SE,) you are separated (needlessly) from science (strict empiricism) itself.