Climate Change - Science topic
Climate Change is an any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Questions related to Climate Change
Is it true that in climatic cycles FIRST TEMPERATURE rises, and some or hundred years later also the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere?
Is it right that this theory would implicate, that rising CO2 concentration in the air itsself is not the real primary reason for climate change of today, as I got told?
Other times does this mean, that even when TEMPERATURE in the atmosphere drop, CO2 drops yet far more later in years or hundred years ?
This cycle would also thrive the up and downgoing ice ages. Is it true?
Prefatory, it may be, because this year the radiations and greenhouse gases interaction feedback processes on different timescale (one of the main factor in monsoon dynamics) which makes the monsoon predictability erratic is not expected to add much uncertainty in the prediction system due to the substantial reduction in the greenhouse gas emissions. Implies, may be an upper hand for potential predictive models in the line. Recall that model ability to predict the SW monsoon is higher with initial conditions been used for the month of Feb., March, April (this years these are main lockdown month in the world when atmosphere is not invaded by atmospheric gases) than months closer to the SW monsoon. On other side, can be also be test bed for the models have near accurate long rage forecasting tendency with early months (as mentioned above) initial conditions.
Over all it may be also be manifested that NATURE can be predicted correctly if it is not disturbed. BUT if we keep on disturbing it then predictability may not be that easy and precise.
If yes, then "Commendations" to the accurate predictability of the monsoon system will be higher this year, I think. Good! This may also considered because of Nature natural tendency is higher this year apart from having well resolved and improved interannual and climate systems predictability aspects in the modelling systems, etc...
Nature is in NATURAL swing. Enjoy and try to be safe! But we should also be ready for the monsoon system predictability in the times to come or years to come when emissions will again be dumped in the earth system. It will certainly obstruct the prediction realities. Consistency is the accuracy in the prediction should be addressed responsibly.
What’s your take on that!
The World Environment Day 2020: Call for Book Chapters
Greetings of the day!
The World Environment Day (WED) is commemorated on 5th June of every year to promote awareness about the importance of conserving the environment for our better future and sustainability. The foods we eat, the air we breathe, the water we drink, all comes from nature. We are entirely dependent on nature’s services. The theme for this year’s World Environment Day is biodiversity. The more biodiverse an ecosystem is, the more difficult it is for one pathogen to spread rapidly or dominate; whereas, biodiversity loss provides the opportunity for pathogens to pass between animals and people. Human actions, including deforestation, encroachment on wildlife habitats, intensified agriculture, and acceleration of climate change, have disturbed the delicate balance of nature. We have changed the system that would naturally protect us and have created conditions that allow particular pathogens–including coronaviruses–to spread.
I am delighted to inform you that the Faculty of Applied Sciences, AIMST University is going to publish a book to commemorate the World Environment Day-2020 (WED-2020). The title of the planned Book is ‘BIODIVERSITY FOR SUSTAINABILITY – Challenges and Perspectives in the Post-Pandemic Era.’ You are cordially invited to contribute a chapter for this purpose-driven Book.
Advantages of Publishing:
- This Book will be published to commemorate the World Environment Day 2020, and you will be part of it.
- Wide visibility, as the Book will be made available online and through online e-book platforms.
- The ISBN and ISBN barcode will be allotted to the Book.
- Authors will get an e-copy of their published chapter.
- The publication is FREE OF CHARGE, as there is no Article Processing Charge (APC), and no publication Fee.
- Authors will submit their Manuscripts: Before 30 June 2020
- Completion of the review process: 10 July 2020
- Completion of Corrections & Proof Reading: 17 July 2020
- Book Publication: 31 July 2020 (tentative)
- *AIMST University reserves the rights to change the stated dates
The guidelines for the authors to prepare a Chapter manuscript and its submission are appended with this post.
Positively, I am looking forward to hearing from you.
P.S.: Please feel free to extend this invitation to your friends, if you feel they can contribute a chapter.
Dr Subhash J Bhore
Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, AIMST University, Bedong-Semeling Road, 08100 Bedong, Semeling, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia; Email: email@example.com OR firstname.lastname@example.org
Are there any climatological trials to increase the C02 concentration in rates like of 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 10.000 ppm of the air in volumes sizes like of plastic balloons, round-bottom flasks glass or in glass houses and coincidentally observing and measuring the air temperature during variable day sunshine irradiation and how temperature behaves or rises really - also in presence of different rates of earth like materials like water, soil and plants like on earth surface conditions and also with only the presence of air?
Ad hoc I could not find any results.
Many observations and calculations of the atmospheric absorption can be found, but it would appear very few studies on climate had explicitly applied the basic radiative transfer equation in different forms, including scattering and atmospheric radiation. If you know any relevent references or your own papers to share, that would be wonderful.
Some banks conducting an analysis of the creditworthiness of an enterprise applying for a long-term investment or mortgage loan take into account the issues of climate change, if these changes may affect the business profitability of a specific lending business venture. For example, in the case of a hotel application for a long-term investment loan operating on the sea, the level of which can rise and flood the hotel area.
Another example is a hotel located in the mountains, where winter sports tourists come. Climate change predictions may indicate that 10 years of snow will no longer be the place where this hotel in the mountains provides its services. Therefore, the bank may not grant credit due to the forecasted secondary effects of progressive climate changes and, above all, the rising average temperature.
On the other hand, companies are developing which produce components for new power plants producing electricity as part of renewable energy sources, produce electric car equipment components, e.g. electric motors, batteries, etc. More and more innovative startups are being produced as part of cooperation with large enterprises and renewable energy plants Wind turbine type subassemblies, charging devices for electric cars, etc. Other companies manufacture packaging from recycled materials, recycled or from biodegradable materials.
Other companies are developing innovative solutions for automatic sorting of rubbish. If eco-friendly products become popular and the state creates good institutional, legal and financial conditions for the development of such projects, then the process of implementing sustainable green economy based on the green economy concept will be implemented more quickly and business probes will become more and more profitable. Financial institutions, including banks, will gradually take into consideration eco-friendly processes and business activities of clients in concluded financial transactions.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Are there banks and / or companies that take into account forecasted climate changes in their business decisions?
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Can any one help me, I have problem with this pollens, I think they are Cupressaceae( In particular Cupressus sempervirens and Juniperus), but I'm not sure about that. In general, this pollens are round and have a small cavity. The following figures shows some of them.
I'm researching about MIS2 (30,000-11,000 B.P) in the Central Zagros, specifically Kermanshah using wetland sediments. In the current era, the growth of Cupressaceae has not been observed in this region. And it can be strange that I see these pollens many times at the different depths . also at some depths they have high frequency, Which indicates that it is not migratory pollen brought by the wind.
thanks a lot.
Can in a sole vessel be demonstrated that the air temperature rises when CO2 concentrations rises by sun irridation?
Were there yet any trials to test the effect of increasing C02 concentrations in rates like of 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm CO2 to prove that CO2 rises also air temperature in an simple experiment?
And how much air temperature rises, when there is the air only zero, 100 ppm and 200 ppm CO2?
Since climate change has become more common day by day, how it affects different communities differently.
What and how community-led intersectional adaption should be?
How can local traditional knowledge and practice be considered a scientific solution in our (academic researcher) climate change research?
Net zero refers to a state in which the greenhouse gases going into the atmosphere are balanced by removal out of the atmosphere. A growing number of countries, cities and companies are aiming for 'net zero' emissions to meet climate goals, and the International Energy Agency has unveiled a plan to get there.
For tree based removal of CO2 would demand between 0.4 and 1.2 billion hectares of land. That’s 25% to 80% of all the land currently under cultivation. How will that be achieved at the same time as feeding 8-10 billion people around the middle of the century or without destroying native vegetation and biodiversity?
If we add technological removal, it may be termed as investment with no return.
If we are purly dependent on plantation, growing billions of trees would consume vast amounts of water – in some places where people are already thirsty. Increasing forest cover in higher latitudes can have an overall warming effect because replacing grassland or fields with forests means the land surface becomes darker. This darker land absorbs more energy from the Sun and so temperatures rise. Focusing on developing vast plantations in poorer tropical nations comes with real risks of people being driven off their lands.
And it is often forgotten that trees and the land in general already soak up and store away vast amounts of carbon through what is called the natural terrestrial carbon sink. Interfering with it could both disrupt the sink and lead to double accounting.
Ground scale individual's role is mandatory to bring a clearer picture of mitigating climate change. I guess knowledge expansion should be given more importance.
I Will be more than happy if somebody help me in this case. Does it has an specific function in R? or we should utilize quantile -copula methods...? or other???
I usually download future climate data from Worldclim.org.
Their website says that "Data at 30-seconds spatial resolution is expected to be available by the end of March 2020", however, this has not materialized . . . https://www.worldclim.org/data/cmip6/cmip6climate.html
Does anyone know of alternative sources to download future data at this (1km) resolution?
Dear Researchers, Water Managers, Climate Experts, and Policymakers,
By understanding the ways in which ancient communities were successful at or failed in attaining sustainable water management, recent studies have attempted to provide important information for modern communities facing climate change impacts which are consequently resulting in water scarcity, security, safety, and sustainability issues. For example:
Conference Paper Study of Vandiyur Tank Cascade System in Madurai: Exploring ...
Can the perspective of re-implementing ancient and indigenous techniques of water management in contemporary conditions be considered as an imperative proposition to drafting modern water management policies? Your opinions, observations from your case studies, and evidence from your published work, if shared, will be gratefully appreciated.
Dear Researchers, Policymakers, and Climate Experts,
Given the rising negative consequences of climate change and the interaction of climate-related and other hazards, it is the "need of the time" proposition to assess future risks and impacts at both global and local scales. For e.g.:
What methods, methodologies, and frameworks are available to us that can help provide information about long-term changes, including sea-level rise and ocean acidification, and the risk of irreversible and abrupt changes?
Hello, I'm doing a project that requires observed precipitation data from 1990-2019 and climate model data from 1990-2049. I used GCM csiro mk.3.6.0 and got it from the esgf website, but the historical data for that model only reached 2005 so I used predicted data with rcp 4.5 scenario for the following year. Then i compared the climate predicted data for 2006-2019 with observational data and the predicted data were much larger. What should i do for this problem? Thank you in advance
It is well-establshed fact that the link between land use and the climate is complex. For example, land cover, as shaped by land-use practices, affects the global concentration of greenhouse gases. While land-use change is an important driver of climate change, as changing climate can lead to changes in land use and land cover. Although, the understanding of the interactions between climate and land-use change is improving, continued scientific investigation is still needed. I request you to kindly share your opinions and evidence from the published research regarding various methods available that help distinguishes and decide whether the disaster occurred due to climate change or land cover change. Thank you!
The threats that global warming has recently posed to humans in many parts of the world have led us to continue this debate.
So the main question is that what actions need to be taken to reduce the risk of climate warming?
Reducing greenhouse gases now seems an inevitable necessity.
In this part in addition to the aforementioned main question, other specific well-known subjects from previous discussion are revisited. Please support or refute the following arguments in a scientific manner.
% ---------------- *** Updated Discussions of Global Warming (section 1) *** ---------------%
The rate of mean temperature of the earth has been increased almost twice with respect to 60 years ago, it is a fact (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, GISS, data). Still a few questions regarding physical processes associated with global warming remain unanswered or at least need more clarification. So the causes and prediction of this trend are open questions. The most common subjects are listed below:
1) "Greenhouse effect increases temperature of the earth, so we need to diminish emission of CO2 and other air pollutants." The logic behind this reasoning is that the effects of other factors like the sun's activity (solar wind contribution), earth rotation orbit, ocean CO2 uptake, volcanoes activities, etc are not as important as greenhous effect. Is the ocean passive in the aforementioned scenario?
2) Two major physical turbulent fluids, the oceans and the atmosphere, interacting with each other, each of them has different circulation timescale, for the oceans it is from year to millennia that affects heat exchange. It is not in equilibrium with sun instantaneously. For example the North Atlantic Ocean circulation is quasi-periodic with recurrence period of about 7 kyr. So the climate change always has occurred. Does the timescale of crucial players (NAO, AO, oceans, etc) affect the results?
3) Energy of the atmospheric system including absorption and re-emission is about 200 Watt/m2 ; the effect of CO2 is about how many percent to this budget ( 2% or more?), so does it have just a minor effect or not?
4) Climate system is a multi-factor process and there exists a natural modes of temperature variations. How anthropogenic CO2 emissions makes the natural temperature variations out of balance.
6) Some weather and climate models that are based on primitive equations are able to reproduce reliable results. Are the available models able to predict future decadal variability exactly? How much is the uncertainty of the results. An increase in CO2 apparently leads in higher mean temperature value due to radiative transfer.
7) How is global warming related to extreme weather events?
Some of the consequences of global warming are frequent rainfall, heat waves, and cyclones. If we accept global warming as an effect of anthropogenic fossil fuels, how can we stop the increasing trend of temperature anomaly and switching to clean energies?
8) What are the roles of sun activities coupled with Milankovitch cycles?
9) What are the roles of politicians to alarm the danger of global warming? How much are scientists sensitive to these decisions?
10) How much is the CO2’s residence time in the atmosphere? To answer this question precisely, we need to know a good understanding of CO2 cycle.
11) Clean energy reduces toxic buildups and harmful smog in air and water. So, how much building renewable energy generation and demanding for clean energy is urgent?
% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 2) *** ---------------%
Warming of the climate system in the recent decades is unequivocal; nevertheless, in addition to a few scientific articles that show the greenhouse gases and human activity as the main causes of global warming, still the debate is not over and some opponents claim that these effects have minor effects on human life. Some relevant topics/criticisms about global warming, causes, consequences, the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), etc are putting up for discussion and debate:
1) All the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydro-fluorocarbons, including HCFCs and HFCs, and ozone) account for about a tenth of one percent of the atmosphere. Based on Stefan–Boltzmann law in basic physics, if you consider the earth with the earth's albedo (a measure of the reflectivity of a surface) in a thermal balance, that is: the power radiated from the earth in terms of its temperature = Solar flux at the earth's cross section, you get Te =(1-albedo)^0.25*Ts.*sqrt(Rs/(2*Rse)), where Te (Ts) is temperature at the surface of the earth (Sun), Rs: radius of the Sun, Rse: radius of the earth's orbit around the Sun. This simplified equation shows that Te depends on these four variables: albedo, Ts, Rs, Rse. Just 1% variation in the Sun's activity lead to variation of the earth's surface temperature by about half a degree.
1.1) Is the Sun's surface (photosphere layer) temperature (Ts) constant?
1.2) How much is the uncertainty in measuring the Sun's photosphere layer temperature?
1.3) Is solar irradiance spectrum universal?
1.4) Is the earth's orbit around the sun (Rse) constant?
1.5) Is the radius of the Sun (Rs) constant?
1.6) Is the largeness of albedo mostly because of clouds or the man-made greenhouse gases?
So the sensitivity of global mean temperature to variation of tracer gases is one of the main questions.
2) A favorable climate model essentially is a coupled non-linear chaotic system; that is, it is not appropriate for the long term future prediction of climate states. So which type of models are appropriate?
3) Dramatic temperature oscillations were possible within a human lifetime in the past. So there is nothing to worry about. What is wrong with the scientific method applied to extract temperature oscillations in the past from Greenland ice cores or shifts in types of pollen in lake beds?
4) IPCC Assessment Reports,
IPCC's reports are known as some of the reliable sources of climate change, although some minor shortcomings have been observed in them.
4.1) "What is Wrong With the IPCC? Proposals for a Radical Reform" (Ross McKitrick):
IPCC has provided a few climate-change Assessment Reports during last decades. Is a radical reform of IPCC necessary or we should take all the IPCC alarms seriously? What is wrong with Ross argument? The models that are used by IPCC already captured a few crudest features of climate change.
4.2) The sort of typical issues of IPCC reports:
- The summary reports focus on those findings that support the human interference theory.
- Some arguments are based on this assumption that the models account for most major sources of variation in the global mean temperature anomaly.
- "Correlation does not imply causation", in some Assessment Reports, results gained from correlation method instead of investigating the downstream effects of interventions or a double-blind controlled trial; however, the conclusions are with a level of reported uncertainty.
4.3) Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) also has produced some massive reports to date.
4.4) Is the NIPCC a scientific or a politically biased panel? Can NIPCC climate reports be trusted?
4.5) What is wrong with their scientific methodology?
5) Changes in the earth's surface temperature cause changes in upper level cirrus and consequently radiative balance. So the climate system can increase its cooling processes by these types of feedbacks and adjust to imbalances.
6) What is your opinion about political intervention and its effect upon direction of research budget?
I really appreciate all the researchers who have had active participation with their constructive remarks in these discussion series.
% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 3) *** ---------------%
In this part other specific well-known subjects are revisited. Please support or refute the following arguments in a scientific manner.
1) Still there is no convincing theorem, with a "very low range of uncertainty", to calculate the response of climate system in terms of the averaged global surface temperature anomalies with respect to the total feedback factors and greenhouse gases changes. In the classical formula applied in the models a small variation in positive feedbacks leads to a considerable changes in the response (temperature anomaly) while a big variation in negative feedbacks causes just small variations in the response.
2) NASA satellite data from the years 2000 through 2011 indicate the Earth's atmosphere is allowing far more heat to be emitted into space than computer models have predicted (i.e. Spencer and Braswell, 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rs3081603). Based on this research "the response of the climate system to an imposed radiative imbalance remains the largest source of uncertainty. It is concluded that atmospheric feedback diagnosis of the climate system remains an unsolved problem, due primarily to the inability to distinguish between radiative forcing and radiative feedback in satellite radiative budget observations." So the contribution of greenhouse gases to global warming is exaggerated in the models used by the U.N.’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). What is wrong with this argument?
3) Ocean Acidification
Ocean acidification is one of the consequences of CO2 absorption in the water and a main cause of severe destabilising the entire oceanic food-chain.
4) The IPCC reports which are based on a range of model outputs suffer somehow from a range of uncertainty because the models are not able to implement appropriately a few large scale natural oscillations such as North Atlantic Oscillation, El Nino, Southern ocean oscillation, Arctic Oscillation, Pacific decadal oscillation, deep ocean circulations, Sun's surface temperature, etc. The problem with correlation between historical observations of the global averaged surface temperature anomalies with greenhouse gases forces is that it is not compared with all other natural sources of temperature variability. Nevertheless, IPCC has provided a probability for most statements. How the models can be improved more?
5) If we look at micro-physics of carbon dioxide, theoretically a certain amount of heat can be trapped in it as increased molecular kinetic energy by increasing vibrational and rotational motions of CO2, but nothing prevents it from escaping into space. During a specific relaxation time, the energetic carbon dioxide comes back to its rest statement.
6) As some alarmists claim there exists a scientific consensus among the scientists. Nevertheless, even if this claim is true, asking the scientists to vote on global warming because of human made greenhouse gases sources does not make sense because the scientific issues are not based on the consensus; indeed, appeal to majority/authority fallacy is not a scientific approach.
% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 4) *** ---------------%
In this part in addition to new subjects, I have highlighted some of responses from previous sections for further discussion. Please leave you comments to support/weaken any of the following statements:
1) @Harry ten Brink recapitulated a summary of a proof that CO2 is such an important Greenhouse component/gas. Here is a summary of this argument:
"a) Satellites' instruments measure the radiation coming up from the Earth and Atmosphere.
b) The emission of CO2 at the maximum of the terrestrial radiation at 15 micrometer.
b1. The low amount of this radiation emitted upwards: means that "back-radiation" towards the Earth is high.
b2. Else said the emission is from a high altitude in the atmosphere and with more CO2 the emission is from an even higher altitude where it is cooler. That means that the emission upwards is less. This is called in meteorology a "forcing", because it implies that less radiation /energy is emitted back into space compared to the energy coming in from the sun.
The atmosphere warms so the energy out becomes equals the solar radiation coming in. Summary of the Greenhouse Effect."
At first glance, this reasoning seems plausible. It is based on these assumptions that the contribution of CO2 is not negligible and any other gases like N2O or Ozone has minor effect. The structure of this argument is supported by an article by Schmidt et al., 2010:
By using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE radiation module, the authors claim that "water vapor is the dominant contributor (∼50% of the effect), followed by clouds (∼25%) and then CO2 with ∼20%. All other absorbers play only minor roles. In a doubled CO2 scenario, this allocation is essentially unchanged, even though the magnitude of the total greenhouse effect is significantly larger than the initial radiative forcing, underscoring the importance of feedbacks from water vapour and clouds to climate sensitivity."
The following notions probably will shed light on the aforementioned argument for better understanding the premises:
Q1) Is there any observational data to support the overall upward/downward IR radiation because of CO2?
Q2) How can we separate practically the contribution of water vapor from anthropogenic CO2?
Q3) What are the deficiencies of the (GISS) ModelE radiation module, if any?
Q4) Some facts, causes, data, etc relevant to this argument, which presented by NASA, strongly support this argument (see: https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/)
Q5) Stebbins et al, (1994) showed that there exists "A STRONG INFRARED RADIATION FROM MOLECULAR NITROGEN IN THE NIGHT SKY" (thanks to @Brendan Godwin for mentioning about this paper). As more than 78% of the dry air contains nitrogen, so the contribution of this element is not negligible too.
2) The mean global temperature is not the best diagnostic to study the sensitivity to global forcing. Because given a change in this mean value, it is almost impossible to attribute it to global forcing. Zonal and meridional distribution of heat flux and temperature are not uniform on the earth, so although the mean temperature value is useful, we need a plausible map of spatial variation of temperature .
3) "The IPCC model outputs show that the equilibrium response of mean temperature to a doubling of CO2 is about 3C while by the other observational approaches this value is less than 1C." (R. Lindzen)
4) What is the role of the thermohaline circulation (THC) in global warming (or the other way around)? It is known that during Heinrich events and Dansgaard‐Oeschger (DO) millennial oscillations, the climate was subject to a number of rapid cooling and warming with a rate much more than what we see in recent decades. In the literature, these events were most probably associated with north-south shifts in convection location of the THC. The formation speed of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) affects northerly advection velocity of the warm subtropical waters that would normally heat/cool the atmosphere of Greenland and western Europe.
I really appreciate all the researchers who have participated in this discussion with their useful remarks, particularly Harry ten Brink, Filippo Maria Denaro, Tapan K. Sengupta, Jonathan David Sands, John Joseph Geibel, Aleš Kralj, Brendan Godwin, Ahmed Abdelhameed, Jorge Morales Pedraza, Amarildo de Oliveira Ferraz, Dimitris Poulos, William Sokeland, John M Wheeldon, Michael Brown, Joseph Tham, Paul Reed Hepperly, Frank Berninger, Patrice Poyet, Michael Sidiropoulos, Henrik Rasmus Andersen, and Boris Winterhalter.
Can someone recommend a model (preferably not too input demanding) that simulates climate change and/or land use-change scenario using Ecosystem services as output (e.g., soil c stock, primary production, landscape aesthetic value, ...)
We have looked AOD data from aeronet site. However, we found a large amount of data is missing for different stations of Nepal. Do you aware of some satellite data for AOD over the regions of Kathmandu? If yes, please let us know the website for data download. Thank you.
Dear RG memebers
Is the effect of climate change on groundwater visible and can it be quantified?
It seems that the effect of human activity ( deforestation, overexploitation of groundwater, irrigational activity, etc ) ate easly observable and can be quantified than the effect of climate change on groundwater. What is your idea and research experiances on it?
The progressive global warming process in many ways adversely affects the ecosystems of the seas and oceans. In addition, the growing scale of pollution, waste, including plastic waste and many other toxic, non-biodegradable, contributes to adverse changes in many areas, sea zones and assessments, as well as biological depletion of biodiversity of ecosystems. The scale of this depletion is already beginning to be noticeable also for people in some areas of the sea, in which the number of fished fish is decreasing.
In addition, the rising temperature of the seas and oceans, which will be a derivative of the global warmning process, causes changes in ocean currents, which causes the appearance of new weather anomalies and climatic disasters also in land areas inhabited by people. Until recently, it was thought that seas and assessments, due to their high volume potential for land surfaces, would act as a kind of buffer factor for the global warming process. However, it turns out that the seas and oceans are unlikely to play the role of a buffer factor, they will only quickly undergo the global warmnig process and in this way may also become another factor strengthening the scale of increasingly occurring weather anomalies and climatic cataclysms.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Are the seas assessed as a global warming process buffer or are they subject to this process?
I invite you to the discussion
Except synoptic stations, does anybody know any website/software that gives the climatological data of unequipped places?
I am aware of using interpolation methods, but, I am looking for a method that extract data for a desired location numerically (like an excel format etc,.).
Global warming has got more and more concerns owing to its various effects for nature, social and human health. Carbon neutrality has been recognized an ambitious aims for whole world. However, there are many questions needs scientists to give the answer. for example, what kind of practice is suitable for different countries? Is it possible to curb the climate changes? Is it a political thing or scientific-based solution? what can we do from our daily life, social activities to governmental policy. We have only one-earth, and in-deep discussion will put forward the idea to action. Welcome discussion on these.
We have ERA5 time series data which was used to extract maximum and minimum temperature. As the spatial resolution was not good therefore we downscaled it to 90 meters to increase the correlation coefficent value against in-situ data.
so i wanted to know whether this step is scientifically correct or not???
Hello Community. I need your help! I want to write Bachelorthesis in field of city research/ecosystem services/climate change and adaptation. I still have no specific research question. So if someone can advice what is better and more important to research at the moment in these fields, i would be very grateful! It will be a huge help!
According to the Global Climate Risk Index 2021, developing countries bear the brunt of risks associated with climate change. International Climate Financing has increased over the years; however, the question remains how it can be efficiently managed and assessed for its successful implementation.
Kindly provide your valuable feedbacks.
Our opinion is expressed in the lecture given in 2019 in Amsterdam in the context of the PFO-CFO Theory and in the subsequent works available by the addresses:
Ostrovskii V.E., Kadyshevich, Solar protuberances: their nature, function, and potential threat to the Earth's population in the context of the PFO-CFO Theory of Solar System Formation and Transformation (Presentation); https://www.researchgate.net/publication/333754868_Solar_protuberances_their_nature_function_and_potential_threat_to_the_Earth's_population_in_the_context_of_the_PFO-CFO_Theory_of_Solar_System_Formation_and_Transformation_Presentation;
What are the ways to do a qualitative study on how service providers can support communities to mitigate and adapt to the impacts of climate change, particularly for women and girls. In addition, what kind of operational research may be undertaken to explore the impact of climate change and environment on Sexual Reproductivity and Health Rights (SRHR)? Such as the impact of water salinity in coastal areas on pregnancy-induced hypertension or eclampsia.
I am looking for recommendations for good methodologies and models for climate scenarios that include ENSO and AMO events for local scales.
I would like to do my PhD on the climate change. If anyone is willing to work with me, we can connect and I can explain the whole theory and then may be we can proceed quantitively to prove my theory is right or wrong.
I am conducting a climate change study in an Australian region.
Does anyone know how to choose the best model for the region?
And moreover, say I want to do the assessment for wet, mean and dry conditions.
Should I just take the average daily rainfall as my reference to see which model has the wettest, driest or average prediction?
In connection with the warming of the Earth's climate, progressive global warming, some areas located in the sub-tropical zone in the future will not be fit for existence, and the migration processes of the population will be intensified.
Do you agree with my opinion?
Donald Trump's withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement threatens its future. Now, whispers of Brazil's withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement is heard. Seems Brazil's withdrawal influenced by the withdrawal of the USA. Under this situation, will other countries also withdraw from the agreement?
In your opinion, how will the withdrawal of these countries affect the future of this agreement?
Energy, especially electricity, has long been recognized as an essential commodity for everyday life in the contemporary world . It is the main driving force of the human, social, and economic development of any nation. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the global electricity generation in 2017 was 25,551 TWh, of which fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) accounted for up to 65% . However, due to their non-renewable nature, these sources are not likely to satisfy the increasing world demand in electricity resulting from the permanent growth in the world’s population and technological advancement. They are declining steadily. A study by Abas et al.  showed that oil, natural gas, and coal would be depleted in 2066, 2068, and 2126, respectively. This situation is the primary cause of the current price volatility and energy supply insecurity. Furthermore, the burning of fossil fuels releases toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs), which are detrimental to health and contribute to climate change. The consequences of climate change are far and varied, and include increased wildfires, prolonged droughts, stronger tropical storms, and frequent coastal floods .
What is the role of renewable energy in the global energy transformation?
- Karanfil, F.; Li, Y. Electricity consumption and economic growth: Exploring panel-specific differences. Energy Policy 2015, 82, 264–277.
- IEA. Global Energy & CO2 Status Report 2017; IEA: Paris, France, 2018.
- Abas, N.; Kalair, A.; Khan, N. Review of fossil fuels and future energy technologies. Futures 2015, 69, 31–49.
- Pachauri, R.K.; Allen, M.R.; Barros, V.R.; Broome, J.; Cramer, W.; Christ, R.; Church, J.A.; Clarke, L.; Dahe, Q.; Dasgupta, P. Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; IPCC: Geneva, Switzerland, 2014; ISBN 92-9169-143-7.
I am working in a research to study resilient buildings. I would like to know if is possible develop a new technology that gives buildings some resilient property.
Electric cars have been introduced world wide with the idea that there will be some decrease in carbon footprints along with decrease in air pollution. But we have to charge an electric car on regular basis. From where that energy will come, is a big question. Some countries have hydel power generation, and some have thermal energy, the other may have solar also.
Second question is about water, air and soil pollution? If we shifted from air pollution to water and/or soil pollution, we have the ability to handle such mega scale pollutions?
In the light of the above, what is your analysis and views?
I am wondering if there exists any good paper that has analyzed the relations between climate change and the standard of life before the Industrial Revolution. As we know the real wage rates for British building workers since 1200, I am particularly interested if we can detect any correlation between temperature in England and the real wage before 1750 or before 1850 before England shows a sharp growth in real wage rates.
Can climate change be considered a new national emergency and do it require immediate actions? If it is in conflict with national security concerns, which one should be prioritized, e.g., national business benefits vs climate change commitments OR carbon emissions reduction vs livelihood improvement?
In addition, will requirements on accountability and transparency of militaries' performance on climate affecting national security?
A national emergency is a serious situation that requires immediate action from the nation. The most typical emergency is war and the latest one is COVID-19. (Read more: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/we-are-living-in-a-climate-emergency-and-were-going-to-say-so/
Most of us believe that climate change is there and needs our effective actions. However, every country and region bears different forms and levels of risks and impacts, and therefore reacts variously. Someone hopes to stop using fossil fuels and achieve net-zero emissions right now. Some others prefer incremental and just transitions. How immediate the actions are appropriate?
As researchers, what could be our responses contributing to provide more proper climate choices or actions?
Looking forward to dear folks' responses. All welcome!
Please suggest how can we measure the hydrological sensitivity of a basin to the changing patterns of temperature and rainfall using inflow and outflow records at a particular gauging site or whole basin.
Kindly request you clarify on this issues. Plus, how significantly such methane contribution--if yes-- is worsening the global warming?
Moreover, only by considering re-radiation effects of built-up area would be good enough?
We need to prepare a weighted average multi-model ensemble of projected future daily precipitation by assigning weights to individual CMIP6 models based on past performance. For this purpose, We want to use Bayesian Model Averaging. Since the distribution of precipitation is highly skewed with large number of zeros in it, a mixed (discrete-gamma) distribution is preferred as the conditional PDF as per Sloughter et al., (2007).
Considering 'y' as the reference (observed ) data and 'fk' as the modelled data of kth model,
The conditional PDF consists of two parts. The first part estimates P(y=0|fk) using a logistic regression model. The second part consists the following the term P(y>0|fk)*g(y|fk).
Since the computation of P(y>0|fk) is not mentioned in the referred manuscript, If I can compute P(y=0|fk), Can I compute P(y>0|fk) as 1-P(y=0|fk) in this case?
If not, Can someone help in computing P(y>0|fk)?
You can find the the referred paper here https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR3441.1
I have been able to obtain data of averages for the whole of India from the IMD website and also global datasets over a large timeframe however I cannot seem to obtain individual state/station data.
I am looking to get data that shows trends across different areas of India over the period 1985-2015, therefore data from individual states or weather stations would be much more useful. These exact years are not necessary but data covering this approximate period showing annual or seasonal values would be very helpful.
Does anyone know where I might be able to get this?
Who has done or wants to do research on how technology can scale moral courage--can make it far easier to recruit &commit critical mass numbers of volunteers for nonviolent civil resistance. campaigns? And how can I reach them to invite them to a brainstorm session (maybe several) on what might be the behavioral levers that are most likely to motivate most "concerned" but not activist people to minimize their fears sufficiently and inspire "their better angels" to commit to tactics that history has proven are the most effective for achieving positive system change in the battles against greed, racism, autocracy and ignorance; to be able to recruit the numbers necessary to vastly improve our chances to save what is still savable of Mother Nature and democracy in the little time we have left.' Entre to senior level programmers, or crowdfunding social media mavens would also be especially appreciated, as well as possible research interns. Any location.
i need solutions based in intentional communities, i read a couple papers but it seems to be more a diagnosis than an actually concise solution.
i need more info about how to have a climate governance that actually works in local communities than a large worldwide solution.
Can you please suggest a journal covering climate change, environment and development policy, which has a comparatively quick editorial process?
What are the most serious problems of civilization development that should be solved as soon as possible? What are the global problems for which research should be developed and solutions to these problems resolved in 2019 and in subsequent years?
One of such research problems, which should not be postponed for an indefinite future, is the need to develop environment-friendly sustainable economic development in order to slow down the adverse process of global warming.
With the warming of the Earth's climate, the risk of more dramatic climate cataclysms, including tsunamis, increases.
Tsunami may be a derivative of the global warming problem. Global warming generates an increase in climate disasters, including more cases of tsunamis.
But not only is the risk of more violent and more dramatic tsunamis rising. Also in recent years, there has been more other types of climate and natural climate catatics, such as droughts, rainstorms, tornadoes and weather anomalies.
At present, it should no longer be asked whether global warming generates an increase in natural disasters only what rate of growth will be recorded in the future? So many data, research centers confirms the progressing process of global warming, that the problem is unquestionable.
More and more data points to the growing risk of climate change, unfavorable for human and life on the Earth, increase of climate disasters, climatic and weather anomalies, which are the result of global warming, rising average annual temperature near the Earth's surface.
Now we should just ask: How can these adverse processes be counteracted? What ecological technologies, renewable energy sources, how to help natural environments, how to rebuild them, such as afforestation, to build natural ecosystems absorbing greenhouse gases?
How to develop ecological business ventures? How to create financing systems for this type of pro-ecological projects? How to dispel international cooperation in this matter? What actions should be taken to move towards the development of a new ecological green economy?
How to develop environmentally sustainable economic development to slow down the unfavorable warming of the Earth's climate?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
I hope everything is going well for you. I'm attempting to measure extreme temperature and precipitation indices (TXn, TXx, SU, RX5day, PRCPTOT) data using the CMIP6 model in my current research project, but I'm not sure where I can get pre-made data.
I have life cycle impact categories data based on ReCiPe method but I am wondering if it is possible to use the characterization factor somehow to convert the data according to CML.
Let's say, in a very specific situation in the wake of a climate change in which people would like renewable energy as compared to non-renewable energy, say fossil fuel energy, we have 2 alternatives which reduce carbon emissions (attribute 1) with improvements in variations in annual rainfall patterns and urban floodings (attribute 2). Now, we have satus-quo as the 3rd (or 1st opt-out) and non-of-these as the 4th (or 2nd opt-out) alternatives !
I have now doubts as to whether the scientists who play a key role in the political goals or who are consulted have the real, appropriately up-to-date perspective based on two facts: On the one hand, the ocean vortex, even temporary, have a much more impact on the climate than previously believed and this has not been included in the previous climate model calculations. In spite of the high-performance computers, are the climate model calculations at all adequately good in order to pass such far-reaching laws on it, if only a few ocean eddies might in reality cause a different climate than the one previously calculated? Link to an German article on this: https://www.eskp.de/klimawandel/ozeanwirbel-die-fleissigen-helfer-der-meeresstroemung-935695/ Second, that methane is broken down in the atmosphere after approx. 8 years, but stores 25 times more heat than carbon dioxide and this again has not been adequately taken into account in the climate protection agreement. In addition, large amounts of methane are measured, the origin of which cannot yet be explained. Link to an German article on this: https://www.eskp.de/klimawandel/ozeanwirbel-die-fleissigen-helfer-der-meeresstroemung-935695/
Planet Earth inclusive of humanity is facing the unprecedented twin crisis of global warming and climate change which are impacting all systems and sectors transgressing all boundaries. There are two main approaches: mitigation and adaptation. Mitigation for preventing greenhouse gases to build up in the atmosphere by curtailing its release at the source as well as by enhancing GHG sink. The second strategy involves measures for living with the climatic changes. A balanced mix of multiprong measures is to be taken from individual to institutional levels, from local, regional to global scale.
All the researchers, thinkers and RG friends are invited to take part in this important discussion with your insightful views and useful literature about the state of the art of mitigation and adaptive strategies - both traditional ecological knowledge and modern tools and technologies.
Several of the negative environmental impacts of climate change on environmental sanitation have been known and discussed for years. I would like to know what the negative environmental impacts are and if there is any positive, in your point of view, in this scenario. Let's discuss about it.
I am aware of Bio-Oracle where climate change scenarios can be downloaded. However, due to the comments of a reviewer, I need to use another global circulation model. I was wondering if someone knows where to download another database for the RCP scenarios. It would be very helpful for our work.
Even here in Canada they are saying that climate action is a science based action as a promoting slogan for change, but if science based climate action is implemented through non-science based markets is not that a problem?. UNCSD 2012 / Rio +20 in the Future We Want formalized a paradigm shift from the traditional market to green markets/green growth/green economy but instead of moving towards creating green markets by internalizing the environmental externality in the price mechanism of the traditional market to shift to green markets they are fast moving into creating carbon pricing based markets to continue treating environmental issues as they were in the traditional market still as externalities….
Carbon pricing based markets are dwarf green markets as they do not reflect perfect green market theory and they are unconnected to the green market price….Does not a science based climate action requires a science based market?. If yes, carbon pricing is not the way to go as they are not green markets and we are supposed to have shifted towards green markets in 2012, why are we going that way? Does the shift to green markets in 2012 made the scientific method and perfect green market theory irrelevant?
Think about it just for a positive exchange of ideas, shifting to a world under green markets leaves the traditional market knowledge base behind creating green market paradigm shift knowledge gaps in need of fixing or of new ideas, and this includes the concept of economic efficiency a la pareto. And this leads to the question, why is Pareto efficient in traditional markets neither green Pareto inefficient in green markets? Any ideas/thoughts?
I have been working on research and development projects for about 10 years. One of the few constants in the proposal calls is the persistence of donors in having a theory of change from the applicants. However, I do not think the theory of change is a good value for the time of the designers. I wonder how a proposal team can develop a theory that would be valid for 3 years considering climate change and transition in the international power system. Also, I have seen that more than half of the theory of changes I evaluated do not articulate assumptions, more than 90% do not use any risk association.
What do you think?
I know there are some global database that include rainfall. But I would like something more specific for Africa at a spatial resolution around 0.25 degrees, and daily frequency for the last decade. Something equivalent to the European ECA&D would be great. Does it exist for Africa? Thanks.
Green cover is reducing all over the world and temperature is increasing concurrently as well.There are so many factors are responsibe for the rise of temperature & Humidity), but what's the effect of tree/forest cover reduction on it?
- Is there any direct relationship between tree/forest cover reduction on temperature and humidity? (i suppose yes, there is)
- How to calculate the effect of tree on temperature and humidity?
NB: Article reference would be appriciated
Earth's atmospheric temperature is increasing faster than climate change models predict. Heat from anthropogenic friction may explain this observation. Conservation of energy dictates that energy used to propel and stop vehicles eventually becomes heat. This previously unacknowledged heat emanates in part from vehicular boundary layer aerodynamics and braking systems. The number of aircraft and ground-based vehicles in use suggests anthropogenic frictional heat may be a significant contributor to global warming. These observations support much wider use of regenerative braking systems.
In the coming decade, Africa will be met with an avalanche of challenges. The consequences of not taking the required steps to avert the coming climate crisis and for not capitalizing on the 4th industrial revolution. These two pose the greatest threat to the welfare and lives of the average African. However, they also present an unlikely opportunity for Africa to shock the world. An opportunity that must not be missed.
If Africans (not necessarily African governments but Africans themselves) can in joint action, create an unprecedented transformation of the African society between now and the end of the present decade (just in time for the climate crisis and the wave of the 4th Industrial revolution), I.e. If Africans can create a new African society capable of averting the impending climate crisis, then Africa can and will capitalize on the 4th industrial revolution.
Subsequently once this happens, Africa will be placed on an unstoppable path of drastic developments in areas such as, infrastructure, agriculture, commerce, media, science and technology etc. In easier terms - A golden age..
I am looking for an answer to the question related to data for future climate change. On several forums I found that tmp and pcp data should be used for climate change. I wonder if you can also use slr, hmd and wnd data?
Thanks and regards
Why “roadblocks are often been overlooked by forecasters” before moving to the “prediction system (PS)”? Can it (PS) be considered a sustainable in the long term?
Now a days most of the forecasting agencies in India are busy in giving seasonal weather forecast (regional) including extremes and making it instantly available on the net. Many are in race of launching new portal to do so without comprehension of the predictability charade. Mostly been done using numerical modelling systems without exploring (disclosing) the some main factor which are essentially are the roadblocks in predictability.
I think, correcting spatial bias via embedded station data network should not only be the focus, though it will be a help but not sustainable solution. Why main problem lies been often overlooked before moving to PS? For example- intraseasonal variability (main roadblock to the predictability) is not well resolved in GFS forecasting model (or alike other models) and these oftenly used by the forecaster as an input data to their chosen prediction model. My question is, if unresolved or inadequate in specific sense (exam.- not having tendency to reproduce intraseasonal signals) inputs goes into the main predictive model then how sustainable will be the forecast in the long run. I feel, to do any less may result in prediction unsustainable. Surely, it may results in few right prediction and leads to self-acclaimed commendations but in longer run chances of failure in prediction will be higher. In terse, these prediction will have no substantial value in the long term.
For example – in a year when these charade processes will be predominant, forecast will be failure and it leads to socio-economic loss and setback to forecasting organizations. In general it will then, as usual, follow with post-mortem which will again highlights the need in the improvement of microphysics, intraseasonal signals variability, lead lag relationship, issues associated to AWS, standards rules or norms, installations, implementations policies, and money etc. aspects and in some cases probably leads to blame game to defend the failure. Remember, these reasoning to defend the prediction sometimes makes other agency competitive and robust. Healthy criticism can substitute constructiveness. I think, scientific failure must be constructively accepted to explore afresh scientific causes behind instead politicization.
If such things continue then it will be followed with actions such as --- Despondent with exiting forecast, Govt. decided to search for new options, leaving or updating the existing.
I think, Obliviousness should not a substitute for decisive forecasting. Forecasters must ensure that all roadblock are properly addressed or informed properly to tackle forecasting related failures and contingency. The truth must not left to postmortem and implications of the words.
Vaid, B. H.
What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Global warming?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Global warming.
I invite you to the discussion
We are going to research climate change in a large scale area (Iran). We can minimize the size of calculations and the volume of data (Precipitation, Minimum temperature, and Maximum temperature) to download by using monthly data instead of daily. So I want to know, is it scientifically ok if we use monthly data for bias correction and downscaling?