Science topic

Climate Change - Science topic

Climate Change is an any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Questions related to Climate Change
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
4 answers
Is it true that in climatic cycles FIRST TEMPERATURE rises, and some or hundred years later also the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere?
Is it right that this theory would implicate, that rising CO2 concentration in the air itsself is not the real primary reason for climate change of today, as I got told?
Other times does this mean, that even when TEMPERATURE in the atmosphere drop, CO2 drops yet far more later in years or hundred years ?
This cycle would also thrive the up and downgoing ice ages. Is it true?
Relevant answer
Answer
In the last few years we "celebrated" the first time humans measured the CO2 content in the air exceeding 400 ppm. We can't forget that moment.
Ever since and a few years before we also witnessed numerous heat waves, wild fires, floods, etc We didn't have any such disasters in the last 50 years before.
This last July was the hottest month ever recorded (by humans).
Whatever happened in the past was due to those conditions that existed at the time. Today, the conditions maybe different.
We were observing the CO2 content increasing for 200 years or so, yet we did nothing to suppress it, because Big Oil was running the show and the politicians.
From now on, people could decide whether to look forward to more extreme weather or to smarten up and remove the CO2 from the air. It is up to us.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
4 answers
What is the future of this financial instrument? Has a real impact on the battle against climate change?
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
6 answers
What are solutions to climate change?
Relevant answer
Answer
Going vegetarian is one of the best solution to climate change.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
17 answers
Does deforestation contribute to climate change?
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, approximately 10 million hectares of forests are cut annually globally. By plundering the Amazon rainforest and other natural forest ecosystems, the planet loses much of its biodiversity and its ability to absorb CO2 from the atmosphere. Civilization deforestation is one of the key factors for the increase in the amount of CO2 in the atmosphere and thus also the acceleration of the greenhouse effect and the accelerating global warming process. It is necessary to urgently stop the predatory logging of forests and increase expenditure on afforestation of civilization degraded areas. It is necessary to urgently rebuild the cut forest complexes in order to increase the scale of the reduction of the greenhouse effect and to slow down the process of global warming and save the planet's biosphere from a global climate and natural catastrophe, which may occur in several decades if humanity does not urgently undertake and implement appropriate pro-environmental measures.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
17 answers
Is it hopeless to stop climate change?
Relevant answer
Answer
Stopping climate change cannot be regarded as hopeless, because carrying out a pro-environmental transformation of the economy is the only way to save biodiversity, the biosphere, climate and humanity from the growing climate crisis and the negative effects of climate change growing on a scale. I invite you to the discussion,
Greetings,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
3 answers
How much renewable energy do we need to stop climate change?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Md Shariot-Ullah,
If the entire energy sector on a global scale is converted to renewable energy sources within the next two decades at the latest; land, sea and air means of transport, including motorization, sea-going ships and airplanes will be powered by electricity or hydrogen; all intensive industrial agriculture will be transformed into sustainable organic farming; Most of the civilization degraded areas and recently cut trees, natural forests subject to predatory deforestation will be afforested, etc. then there is a high level of chances for a significant slowdown of climate change, including slowing down the accelerating global warming process. In this way, humanity will have some time to start the second stage of saving the planet Earth's climate, which will be to quickly pull most of the CO2 emitted into the atmosphere from the beginning of the first industrial revolution. In this way, humanity still has a chance to save the planet's biosphere from the global climate crisis.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
4 answers
What happens if we do nothing to stop climate change?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Md Shariot-Ullah,
If we do nothing to stop climate change, a global climate crisis will occur in several decades at the latest, characterized by climatic disasters, including permanent drought and fires covering large areas of the planet Earth, etc. Most of the biodiversity of natural ecosystems will be destroyed, and most of the flora and fauna species still alive will become extinct. The scale of degradation of natural environments, decrease in food production, deterioration of living conditions will increase the risk of threats to people, which will also result in a high risk of not surviving these drastic climatic and natural disasters by humans. The global climate crisis may therefore also threaten the existence of the human species. There is little time, so as an intelligent being, a person should make appropriate decisions as part of increasing the scale of the applied environmental policy to protect the planet's climate, increase the scale of implementation of the sustainable development goals, do everything possible to urgently, quickly and efficiently carry out the pro-environmental transformation of the classic brown economy excess to a sustainable, green, zero-carbon, zero-growth and circular economy to stop climate change and save planet Earth's biosphere from degradation.
Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
1 answer
Dated: 10-June-2020.
Perhaps!
Prefatory, it may be, because this year the radiations and greenhouse gases interaction feedback processes on different timescale (one of the main factor in monsoon dynamics) which makes the monsoon predictability erratic is not expected to add much uncertainty in the prediction system due to the substantial reduction in the greenhouse gas emissions. Implies, may be an upper hand for potential predictive models in the line. Recall that model ability to predict the SW monsoon is higher with initial conditions been used for the month of Feb., March, April (this years these are main lockdown month in the world when atmosphere is not invaded by atmospheric gases) than months closer to the SW monsoon. On other side, can be also be test bed for the models have near accurate long rage forecasting tendency with early months (as mentioned above) initial conditions.
Over all it may be also be manifested that NATURE can be predicted correctly if it is not disturbed. BUT if we keep on disturbing it then predictability may not be that easy and precise.
If yes, then "Commendations" to the accurate predictability of the monsoon system will be higher this year, I think. Good! This may also considered because of Nature natural tendency is higher this year apart from having well resolved and improved interannual and climate systems predictability aspects in the modelling systems, etc...
Nature is in NATURAL swing. Enjoy and try to be safe! But we should also be ready for the monsoon system predictability in the times to come or years to come when emissions will again be dumped in the earth system. It will certainly obstruct the prediction realities. Consistency is the accuracy in the prediction should be addressed responsibly.
What’s your take on that!
Relevant answer
Answer
I think yes.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
9 answers
The World Environment Day 2020: Call for Book Chapters
Dear Colleagues,
Greetings of the day!
The World Environment Day (WED) is commemorated on 5th June of every year to promote awareness about the importance of conserving the environment for our better future and sustainability. The foods we eat, the air we breathe, the water we drink, all comes from nature. We are entirely dependent on nature’s services. The theme for this year’s World Environment Day is biodiversity. The more biodiverse an ecosystem is, the more difficult it is for one pathogen to spread rapidly or dominate; whereas, biodiversity loss provides the opportunity for pathogens to pass between animals and people. Human actions, including deforestation, encroachment on wildlife habitats, intensified agriculture, and acceleration of climate change, have disturbed the delicate balance of nature. We have changed the system that would naturally protect us and have created conditions that allow particular pathogens–including coronaviruses–to spread.
I am delighted to inform you that the Faculty of Applied Sciences, AIMST University is going to publish a book to commemorate the World Environment Day-2020 (WED-2020). The title of the planned Book is ‘BIODIVERSITY FOR SUSTAINABILITY – Challenges and Perspectives in the Post-Pandemic Era.’ You are cordially invited to contribute a chapter for this purpose-driven Book.
Advantages of Publishing:
  • This Book will be published to commemorate the World Environment Day 2020, and you will be part of it.
  • Wide visibility, as the Book will be made available online and through online e-book platforms.
  • The ISBN and ISBN barcode will be allotted to the Book.
  • Authors will get an e-copy of their published chapter.
  • The publication is FREE OF CHARGE, as there is no Article Processing Charge (APC), and no publication Fee.
Important Dates*:
  • Authors will submit their Manuscripts: Before 30 June 2020
  • Completion of the review process: 10 July 2020
  • Completion of Corrections & Proof Reading: 17 July 2020
  • Book Publication: 31 July 2020 (tentative)
  • *AIMST University reserves the rights to change the stated dates
The guidelines for the authors to prepare a Chapter manuscript and its submission are appended with this post.
Positively, I am looking forward to hearing from you.
Thank you!
P.S.: Please feel free to extend this invitation to your friends, if you feel they can contribute a chapter.
Dr Subhash J Bhore
​Department of Biotechnology, Faculty of Applied Sciences, AIMST University, Bedong-Semeling Road, 08100 Bedong, Semeling, Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia; Email: subhash@aimst.edu.my OR subhashbhore@gmail.com
Relevant answer
Answer
To Subhash J Bhore: Congratulation for a such great initiative! Next, perhaps you may want to share a link on a a Book...
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
9 answers
Are there any climatological trials to increase the C02 concentration in rates like of 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm, 10.000 ppm of the air in volumes sizes like of plastic balloons, round-bottom flasks glass or in glass houses and coincidentally observing and measuring the air temperature during variable day sunshine irradiation and how temperature behaves or rises really - also in presence of different rates of earth like materials like water, soil and plants like on earth surface conditions and also with only the presence of air?
Ad hoc I could not find any results.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Johann,
I think you are repeating a question you asked elsewhere about the ice cores showing temperature rising then CO2 increasing. Nobody knows where that CO2 came from but I have my own idea.
Much of the ocean floor is covered with carbonate sediments formed by the settling of the shells of microscopic shellfish. Below a certain depth the shells dissolve which is called the snowline. When the Milankovitch cycles cause the ice sheets to melt, the sea level rises and so does the snowline since it is set by pressure. The dissolution of the carbonate sediments that are now below the snowline produces the extra CO2 because the carbonate (CO3) reacts with water to form CO2 gas.
CaCO3 -> Ca2+ + CO32-
CO32- + H2O <=> HCO3- + OH-
HCO3- + H2O <=> H2CO3 + OH-
H2CO3 <=> H2O + CO2
The CO2 escapes to the atmosphere and increases the greenhouse effect melting more ice sheets in a positive feedback loop. That is why the glacial terminations are so abrupt.
Now we are adding CO2 to the atmosphere the ice sheets are melting again. This is raising the sea level and the carbonate snowline which will produce more CO2 even if we reach net-zero emissions.
There is a book that I have just finished reading which explains a lot of this. It is called "The last generation - how nature will take her revenge for climate change" by Fred Pearce. I highly recommend it even though it is over ten years old.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
8 answers
Many observations and calculations of the atmospheric absorption can be found, but it would appear very few studies on climate had explicitly applied the basic radiative transfer equation in different forms, including scattering and atmospheric radiation. If you know any relevent references or your own papers to share, that would be wonderful.
Relevant answer
Answer
I now think that the number of molecules in the excited state depends on collisions, not on radiation. Molecules that are excited by absorption are soon quenched by weak collisions which warm the air slowly. The excited molecules depend on strong collisions from the warmed air molecules.
In other words, both Goody & Yung and Thomas & Stamnes are wrong. There is a new edition of T & S: Stamnes, Thomas & Stamnes. I would be interested to know if that says anything different.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
22 answers
Some banks conducting an analysis of the creditworthiness of an enterprise applying for a long-term investment or mortgage loan take into account the issues of climate change, if these changes may affect the business profitability of a specific lending business venture. For example, in the case of a hotel application for a long-term investment loan operating on the sea, the level of which can rise and flood the hotel area.
Another example is a hotel located in the mountains, where winter sports tourists come. Climate change predictions may indicate that 10 years of snow will no longer be the place where this hotel in the mountains provides its services. Therefore, the bank may not grant credit due to the forecasted secondary effects of progressive climate changes and, above all, the rising average temperature.
On the other hand, companies are developing which produce components for new power plants producing electricity as part of renewable energy sources, produce electric car equipment components, e.g. electric motors, batteries, etc. More and more innovative startups are being produced as part of cooperation with large enterprises and renewable energy plants Wind turbine type subassemblies, charging devices for electric cars, etc. Other companies manufacture packaging from recycled materials, recycled or from biodegradable materials.
Other companies are developing innovative solutions for automatic sorting of rubbish. If eco-friendly products become popular and the state creates good institutional, legal and financial conditions for the development of such projects, then the process of implementing sustainable green economy based on the green economy concept will be implemented more quickly and business probes will become more and more profitable. Financial institutions, including banks, will gradually take into consideration eco-friendly processes and business activities of clients in concluded financial transactions.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Are there banks and / or companies that take into account forecasted climate changes in their business decisions?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
Relevant answer
Answer
yes i agree
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
6 answers
Hi
Can any one help me, I have problem with this pollens, I think they are Cupressaceae( In particular Cupressus sempervirens and Juniperus), but I'm not sure about that. In general, this pollens are round and have a small cavity. The following figures shows some of them.
I'm researching about MIS2 (30,000-11,000 B.P) in the Central Zagros, specifically Kermanshah using wetland sediments. In the current era, the growth of Cupressaceae has not been observed in this region. And it can be strange that I see these pollens many times at the different depths . also at some depths they have high frequency, Which indicates that it is not migratory pollen brought by the wind.
thanks a lot.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Mohsen,
Figs b,e,f,g,h no pollen, there are Testaceae. In Hungarian Upper part of the Serravallien layers are dominant.
Testaceae microplankton with large oval pylome (Amőba)
Best regards. Mária.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
3 answers
Can in a sole vessel be demonstrated that the air temperature rises when CO2 concentrations rises by sun irridation?
Were there yet any trials to test the effect of increasing C02 concentrations in rates like of 300 ppm, 400 ppm, 500 ppm, 1000 ppm CO2 to prove that CO2 rises also air temperature in an simple experiment?
And how much air temperature rises, when there is the air only zero, 100 ppm and 200 ppm CO2?
Relevant answer
Answer
Just shine infra-red light on vessel and temp will rise faster the higher the CO2 conc. This is basically the mechanism for warming in the atmosphere and is so well understood that one way we measure atmospheric CO2 concs is using absorption of infra-red light
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
11 answers
Since climate change has become more common day by day, how it affects different communities differently.
What and how community-led intersectional adaption should be?
How can local traditional knowledge and practice be considered a scientific solution in our (academic researcher) climate change research?
Relevant answer
Answer
It is evident that climate change is real and its impacts are going to be severe in the coming years. While we discuss climate change and its vulnerability, we have a hypothesis.. Poor communities are likely to suffer more than well-off communities. Adaptation will be the key as the damage done by climate change is irreversible in nature for upcoming centuries. Local traditional knowledge and practices will be the key and they should be included in climate change research but with a scientific base.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
4 answers
Try to do a research for making a physical or chemical reaction in CO2 to transform it to Carbon and Diamond. What is the possibility for that ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Osman Ali Sadek Ibrahim this is a pretty exciting question which is certainly of broad general interest to many other RG members as well. This new approach is often called "Diamonds from the sky". For example, please have a look at the following potentially useful links:
A British Entrepreneur Is Making ‘Zero-Impact Diamonds’ That Remove Carbon Dioxide From the Air
(published November 10, 2020)
and
‘Diamonds from the sky’ approach turns CO2 into valuable products
There is also an instructive YouTube video about this topic available which might be worth watching:
Personally I'm rather skeptical if this will help to significantly reduce greenhouse gases like CO2 in the atmosphere. In view of climate change we are talking about millions of tons of CO2.
Please stay safe and healthy!
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
10 answers
Net zero refers to a state in which the greenhouse gases going into the atmosphere are balanced by removal out of the atmosphere. A growing number of countries, cities and companies are aiming for 'net zero' emissions to meet climate goals, and the International Energy Agency has unveiled a plan to get there.
For tree based removal of CO2 would demand between 0.4 and 1.2 billion hectares of land. That’s 25% to 80% of all the land currently under cultivation. How will that be achieved at the same time as feeding 8-10 billion people around the middle of the century or without destroying native vegetation and biodiversity?
If we add technological removal, it may be termed as investment with no return.
If we are purly dependent on plantation, growing billions of trees would consume vast amounts of water – in some places where people are already thirsty. Increasing forest cover in higher latitudes can have an overall warming effect because replacing grassland or fields with forests means the land surface becomes darker. This darker land absorbs more energy from the Sun and so temperatures rise. Focusing on developing vast plantations in poorer tropical nations comes with real risks of people being driven off their lands.
And it is often forgotten that trees and the land in general already soak up and store away vast amounts of carbon through what is called the natural terrestrial carbon sink. Interfering with it could both disrupt the sink and lead to double accounting.
Relevant answer
Answer
The ideas of environmentalists and the public to create a clean planet are clear in ideological terms, and of course we all strive for them.
However, the technical specifics of the plans and actions of "Net zero emission" raises many doubts.
Thus, the plans of companies to restore ecosystems and forests can lead to the purchase of land for free from poor farmers in developing countries.
Compensatory measures of enterprises (restoration of forests, land, carbon capture, etc.) may be minimal in comparison with the reduction of emissions at their own production facilities along all supply chains and in the process of consumption of released goods.
On the part of enterprises, various manipulations are possible with the withdrawal of operations with the highest level of emissions to companies and countries where there is no carbon regulation.
In this sense, "Net zero emission" is a slogan.
In order to turn the slogans of environmentalists into specifics, it is necessary to switch to clean production based on promising energy carriers. The transition to a new technological structure will completely prevent industrial emissions and there are plenty of specific technical opportunities.
One of the possibilities is to switch to electron-beam energy carriers:
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
11 answers
Ground scale individual's role is mandatory to bring a clearer picture of mitigating climate change. I guess knowledge expansion should be given more importance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes. The 6th IPCC Report on climate change and the role of human civilization in greenhouse gas emissions contains important messages on the necessary rapid reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in order to save the biosphere, biodiversity, climate and people from a global climate catastrophe that may occur as early as the end of the 21st century.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
8 answers
I Will be more than happy if somebody help me in this case. Does it has an specific function in R? or we should utilize quantile -copula methods...? or other???
Relevant answer
Answer
Send me equations.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
11 answers
Hi Guys!
I usually download future climate data from Worldclim.org.
Their website says that "Data at 30-seconds spatial resolution is expected to be available by the end of March 2020", however, this has not materialized . . . https://www.worldclim.org/data/cmip6/cmip6climate.html
Does anyone know of alternative sources to download future data at this (1km) resolution?
Many thanks!
Joshua
Relevant answer
Answer
I'm interested to have tha data too.
Did you find the 1 km CMIP6 Climate data yet?
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
17 answers
Dear Researchers, Water Managers, Climate Experts, and Policymakers,
By understanding the ways in which ancient communities were successful at or failed in attaining sustainable water management, recent studies have attempted to provide important information for modern communities facing climate change impacts which are consequently resulting in water scarcity, security, safety, and sustainability issues. For example:
Can the perspective of re-implementing ancient and indigenous techniques of water management in contemporary conditions be considered as an imperative proposition to drafting modern water management policies? Your opinions, observations from your case studies, and evidence from your published work, if shared, will be gratefully appreciated.
Yours Sincerely,
Aman Srivastava
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, if the objectives and assumptions of water management have not changed and if the specific technologies of water management do not cause negative effects on the natural environment and are consistent with the implementation of the sustainable development goals.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
5 answers
Dear Researchers, Policymakers, and Climate Experts,
Given the rising negative consequences of climate change and the interaction of climate-related and other hazards, it is the "need of the time" proposition to assess future risks and impacts at both global and local scales. For e.g.:
What methods, methodologies, and frameworks are available to us that can help provide information about long-term changes, including sea-level rise and ocean acidification, and the risk of irreversible and abrupt changes?
Yours Sincerely,
Aman Srivastava
Relevant answer
Answer
Aman Srivastava I amsure you are aware that the the key diagnostic indicators are RAI,ERT,TI,FFR,IT and CAV.Significant projects are EU FP7 ADVANCE and the forthcoming AR6. Integrated assessment models (IAMs) are widely used for climate policy and climate change analysis.You need to establish a correlation between diagnostic indicators.
Good luck.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
11 answers
Hello, I'm doing a project that requires observed precipitation data from 1990-2019 and climate model data from 1990-2049. I used GCM csiro mk.3.6.0 and got it from the esgf website, but the historical data for that model only reached 2005 so I used predicted data with rcp 4.5 scenario for the following year. Then i compared the climate predicted data for 2006-2019 with observational data and the predicted data were much larger. What should i do for this problem? Thank you in advance
Relevant answer
Answer
Rainfall observations and GCM predictions have different scales. As previous commenters have mentioned, downscaling can help. One worry is your observed rainfall is at a site scale with local and regional factors influencing, while climate simulations at a larger scale drive GCM outcomes. Therefore, it is not ideal to compare these two scales to interpolate. One option to generate missing data is to use co-integration methods to generate the rainfall series for missing periods. This rainfall series can also be used to validate downscaled GCM for future periods.
I hope this helps.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
11 answers
Dear Researcher,
It is well-establshed fact that the link between land use and the climate is complex. For example, land cover, as shaped by land-use practices, affects the global concentration of greenhouse gases. While land-use change is an important driver of climate change, as changing climate can lead to changes in land use and land cover. Although, the understanding of the interactions between climate and land-use change is improving, continued scientific investigation is still needed. I request you to kindly share your opinions and evidence from the published research regarding various methods available that help distinguishes and decide whether the disaster occurred due to climate change or land cover change. Thank you!
Yours Sincerely,
Aman Srivastava
Relevant answer
Answer
In recent time, climate change has played a significant role in disaster, however, climate change agreviates disasters rather than cause them. Land use\land cover on the other hand has been scientifically proven to contribute to disasters
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
132 answers
The threats that global warming has recently posed to humans in many parts of the world have led us to continue this debate.
So the main question is that what actions need to be taken to reduce the risk of climate warming?
Reducing greenhouse gases now seems an inevitable necessity.
In this part in addition to the aforementioned main question, other specific well-known subjects from previous discussion are revisited. Please support or refute the following arguments in a scientific manner.
% -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------%
% ---------------- *** Updated Discussions of Global Warming (section 1) *** ---------------%
The rate of mean temperature of the earth has been increased almost twice with respect to 60 years ago, it is a fact (Goddard Institute for Space Studies, GISS, data). Still a few questions regarding physical processes associated with global warming remain unanswered or at least need more clarification. So the causes and prediction of this trend are open questions. The most common subjects are listed below:
1) "Greenhouse effect increases temperature of the earth, so we need to diminish emission of CO2 and other air pollutants." The logic behind this reasoning is that the effects of other factors like the sun's activity (solar wind contribution), earth rotation orbit, ocean CO2 uptake, volcanoes activities, etc are not as important as greenhous effect. Is the ocean passive in the aforementioned scenario?
2) Two major physical turbulent fluids, the oceans and the atmosphere, interacting with each other, each of them has different circulation timescale, for the oceans it is from year to millennia that affects heat exchange. It is not in equilibrium with sun instantaneously. For example the North Atlantic Ocean circulation is quasi-periodic with recurrence period of about 7 kyr. So the climate change always has occurred. Does the timescale of crucial players (NAO, AO, oceans, etc) affect the results?
3) Energy of the atmospheric system including absorption and re-emission is about 200 Watt/m2 ; the effect of CO2 is about how many percent to this budget ( 2% or more?), so does it have just a minor effect or not?
4) Climate system is a multi-factor process and there exists a natural modes of temperature variations. How anthropogenic CO2 emissions makes the natural temperature variations out of balance.
6) Some weather and climate models that are based on primitive equations are able to reproduce reliable results.  Are the available models able to predict future decadal variability exactly? How much is the uncertainty of the results. An increase in CO2 apparently leads in higher mean temperature value due to radiative transfer.
7) How is global warming related to extreme  weather events?
Some of the consequences of global warming are frequent rainfall, heat waves, and cyclones. If we accept  global warming as an effect of anthropogenic fossil fuels, how can we stop the increasing trend of temperature anomaly and switching to clean energies?
8) What are the roles of sun activities coupled with Milankovitch cycles?
9) What are the roles of politicians to alarm the danger of global warming? How much are scientists sensitive to these decisions?
10) How much is the CO2’s residence time in the atmosphere? To answer this question precisely, we need to know a good understanding of CO2 cycle.
11) Clean energy reduces toxic buildups and harmful smog in air and water. So, how much building renewable energy generation and demanding for clean energy is urgent?
% -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------%
% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 2) *** ---------------%
Warming of the climate system in the recent decades is unequivocal; nevertheless, in addition to a few scientific articles that show the greenhouse gases and human activity as the main causes of global warming, still the debate is not over and some opponents claim that these effects have minor effects on human life. Some relevant topics/criticisms about global warming, causes, consequences, the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), etc are putting up for discussion and debate:
1) All the greenhouse gases (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), hydro-fluorocarbons, including HCFCs and HFCs, and ozone) account for about a tenth of one percent of the atmosphere. Based on Stefan–Boltzmann law in basic physics, if you consider the earth with the earth's albedo (a measure of the reflectivity of a surface) in a thermal balance, that is: the power radiated from the earth in terms of its temperature = Solar flux at the earth's cross section, you get Te =(1-albedo)^0.25*Ts.*sqrt(Rs/(2*Rse)), where Te (Ts) is temperature at the surface of the earth (Sun), Rs: radius of the Sun, Rse: radius of the earth's orbit around the Sun. This simplified equation shows that Te depends on these four variables: albedo, Ts, Rs, Rse. Just 1% variation in the Sun's activity lead to variation of the earth's surface temperature by about half a degree.
1.1) Is the Sun's surface (photosphere layer) temperature (Ts) constant?
1.2) How much is the uncertainty in measuring the Sun's photosphere layer temperature?
1.3) Is solar irradiance spectrum universal?
1.4) Is the earth's orbit around the sun (Rse) constant?
1.5) Is the radius of the Sun (Rs) constant?
1.6) Is the largeness of albedo mostly because of clouds or the man-made greenhouse gases?
So the sensitivity of global mean temperature to variation of tracer gases is one of the main questions.
2) A favorable climate model essentially is a coupled non-linear chaotic system; that is, it is not appropriate for the long term future prediction of climate states. So which type of models are appropriate?
3) Dramatic temperature oscillations were possible within a human lifetime in the past. So there is nothing to worry about. What is wrong with the scientific method applied to extract temperature oscillations in the past from Greenland ice cores or shifts in types of pollen in lake beds?
4) IPCC Assessment Reports,
IPCC's reports are known as some of the reliable sources of climate change, although some minor shortcomings have been observed in them.
4.1) "What is Wrong With the IPCC? Proposals for a Radical Reform" (Ross McKitrick):
IPCC has provided a few climate-change Assessment Reports during last decades. Is a radical reform of IPCC necessary or we should take all the IPCC alarms seriously? What is wrong with Ross argument? The models that are used by IPCC already captured a few crudest features of climate change.
4.2) The sort of typical issues of IPCC reports:
- The summary reports focus on those findings that support the human interference theory.
- Some arguments are based on this assumption that the models account for most major sources of variation in the global mean temperature anomaly.
- "Correlation does not imply causation", in some Assessment Reports, results gained from correlation method instead of investigating the downstream effects of interventions or a double-blind controlled trial; however, the conclusions are with a level of reported uncertainty.
4.3) Nongovernmental International Panel on Climate Change (NIPCC) also has produced some massive reports to date.
4.4) Is the NIPCC a scientific or a politically biased panel? Can NIPCC climate reports be trusted?
4.5) What is wrong with their scientific methodology?
5) Changes in the earth's surface temperature cause changes in upper level cirrus and consequently radiative balance. So the climate system can increase its cooling processes by these types of feedbacks and adjust to imbalances.
6) What is your opinion about political intervention and its effect upon direction of research budget?
I really appreciate all the researchers who have had active participation with their constructive remarks in these discussion series.
% -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------%
% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 3) *** ---------------%
In this part other specific well-known subjects are revisited. Please support or refute the following arguments in a scientific manner.
1) Still there is no convincing theorem, with a "very low range of uncertainty", to calculate the response of climate system in terms of the averaged global surface temperature anomalies with respect to the total feedback factors and greenhouse gases changes. In the classical formula applied in the models a small variation in positive feedbacks leads to a considerable changes in the response (temperature anomaly) while a big variation in negative feedbacks causes just small variations in the response.
2) NASA satellite data from the years 2000 through 2011 indicate the Earth's atmosphere is allowing far more heat to be emitted into space than computer models have predicted (i.e. Spencer and Braswell, 2011, DOI: 10.3390/rs3081603). Based on this research "the response of the climate system to an imposed radiative imbalance remains the largest source of uncertainty. It is concluded that atmospheric feedback diagnosis of the climate system remains an unsolved problem, due primarily to the inability to distinguish between radiative forcing and radiative feedback in satellite radiative budget observations." So the contribution of greenhouse gases to global warming is exaggerated in the models used by the U.N.’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). What is wrong with this argument?
3) Ocean Acidification
Ocean acidification is one of the consequences of CO2 absorption in the water and a main cause of severe destabilising the entire oceanic food-chain.
4) The IPCC reports which are based on a range of model outputs suffer somehow from a range of uncertainty because the models are not able to implement appropriately a few large scale natural oscillations such as North Atlantic Oscillation, El Nino, Southern ocean oscillation, Arctic Oscillation, Pacific decadal oscillation, deep ocean circulations, Sun's surface temperature, etc. The problem with correlation between historical observations of the global averaged surface temperature anomalies with greenhouse gases forces is that it is not compared with all other natural sources of temperature variability. Nevertheless, IPCC has provided a probability for most statements. How the models can be improved more?
5) If we look at micro-physics of carbon dioxide, theoretically a certain amount of heat can be trapped in it as increased molecular kinetic energy by increasing vibrational and rotational motions of CO2, but nothing prevents it from escaping into space. During a specific relaxation time, the energetic carbon dioxide comes back to its rest statement.
6) As some alarmists claim there exists a scientific consensus among the scientists. Nevertheless, even if this claim is true, asking the scientists to vote on global warming because of human made greenhouse gases sources does not make sense because the scientific issues are not based on the consensus; indeed, appeal to majority/authority fallacy is not a scientific approach.
% -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------%
% ---------------- *** Discussions of Global Warming (section 4) *** ---------------%
In this part in addition to new subjects, I have highlighted some of responses from previous sections for further discussion. Please leave you comments to support/weaken any of the following statements:
1) @Harry ten Brink recapitulated a summary of a proof that CO2 is such an important Greenhouse component/gas. Here is a summary of this argument:
"a) Satellites' instruments measure the radiation coming up from the Earth and Atmosphere.
b) The emission of CO2 at the maximum of the terrestrial radiation at 15 micrometer.
b1. The low amount of this radiation emitted upwards: means that "back-radiation" towards the Earth is high.
b2. Else said the emission is from a high altitude in the atmosphere and with more CO2 the emission is from an even higher altitude where it is cooler. That means that the emission upwards is less. This is called in meteorology a "forcing", because it implies that less radiation /energy is emitted back into space compared to the energy coming in from the sun.
The atmosphere warms so the energy out becomes equals the solar radiation coming in. Summary of the Greenhouse Effect."
At first glance, this reasoning seems plausible. It is based on these assumptions that the contribution of CO2 is not negligible and any other gases like N2O or Ozone has minor effect. The structure of this argument is supported by an article by Schmidt et al., 2010:
By using the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) ModelE radiation module, the authors claim that "water vapor is the dominant contributor (∼50% of the effect), followed by clouds (∼25%) and then CO2 with ∼20%. All other absorbers play only minor roles. In a doubled CO2 scenario, this allocation is essentially unchanged, even though the magnitude of the total greenhouse effect is significantly larger than the initial radiative forcing, underscoring the importance of feedbacks from water vapour and clouds to climate sensitivity."
The following notions probably will shed light on the aforementioned argument for better understanding the premises:
Q1) Is there any observational data to support the overall upward/downward IR radiation because of CO2?
Q2) How can we separate practically the contribution of water vapor from anthropogenic CO2?
Q3) What are the deficiencies of the (GISS) ModelE radiation module, if any?
Q4) Some facts, causes, data, etc relevant to this argument, which presented by NASA, strongly support this argument (see: https://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/)
Q5) Stebbins et al, (1994) showed that there exists "A STRONG INFRARED RADIATION FROM MOLECULAR NITROGEN IN THE NIGHT SKY" (thanks to @Brendan Godwin for mentioning about this paper). As more than 78% of the dry air contains nitrogen, so the contribution of this element is not negligible too.
2) The mean global temperature is not the best diagnostic to study the sensitivity to global forcing. Because given a change in this mean value, it is almost impossible to attribute it to global forcing. Zonal and meridional distribution of heat flux and temperature are not uniform on the earth, so although the mean temperature value is useful, we need a plausible map of spatial variation of temperature .
3) "The IPCC model outputs show that the equilibrium response of mean temperature to a doubling of CO2 is about 3C while by the other observational approaches this value is less than 1C." (R. Lindzen)
4) What is the role of the thermohaline circulation (THC) in global warming (or the other way around)? It is known that during Heinrich events and Dansgaard‐Oeschger (DO) millennial oscillations, the climate was subject to a number of rapid cooling and warming with a rate much more than what we see in recent decades. In the literature, these events were most probably associated with north-south shifts in convection location of the THC. The formation speed of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) affects northerly advection velocity of the warm subtropical waters that would normally heat/cool the atmosphere of Greenland and western Europe.
I really appreciate all the researchers who have participated in this discussion with their useful remarks, particularly Harry ten Brink, Filippo Maria Denaro, Tapan K. Sengupta, Jonathan David Sands, John Joseph Geibel, Aleš Kralj, Brendan Godwin, Ahmed Abdelhameed, Jorge Morales Pedraza, Amarildo de Oliveira Ferraz, Dimitris Poulos, William Sokeland, John M Wheeldon, Michael Brown, Joseph Tham, Paul Reed Hepperly, Frank Berninger, Patrice Poyet, Michael Sidiropoulos, Henrik Rasmus Andersen, and Boris Winterhalter.
%%-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------%%
Relevant answer
Answer
The clever parameterizations are the essence of modelling of any complex systems and climate is probably the best examples of this situation. Paraphrasing a quote from Borges, we don't want the Empire map to be as big as the Empire itself. The excellent discussion of this issue is in the article on the hierarchy of models
We do not know where the ideal level of simplification is located; for this reason, I expect that the new methods will include to a larger extent the notion of uncertainty. In the meantime, our current models being subject to a constant reexamination (as shown in my comment before) are a reasonable approximation provided that we understand all processes involved.
I agree that the energy equation should be modified, this change is directly connected to parameterization of unresolvable scales.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
8 answers
Hello,
Can someone recommend a model (preferably not too input demanding) that simulates climate change and/or land use-change scenario using Ecosystem services as output (e.g., soil c stock, primary production, landscape aesthetic value, ...)
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Integrated Valuation of Ecosystem Services and Tradeoffs (InVEST) models have been widely applied to map and quantify ecosystem services and their changes. InVEST is a spatially explicit tool including a suite of open-source software models.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
4 answers
We have looked AOD data from aeronet site. However, we found a large amount of data is missing for different stations of Nepal. Do you aware of some satellite data for AOD over the regions of Kathmandu? If yes, please let us know the website for data download. Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
The best possibility would be from MODIS on NASA's Terra satellite or NASA's MERRA-2.
Thanks!
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
16 answers
Dear RG memebers
Is the effect of climate change on groundwater visible and can it be quantified?
It seems that the effect of human activity ( deforestation, overexploitation of groundwater, irrigational activity, etc ) ate easly observable and can be quantified than the effect of climate change on groundwater. What is your idea and research experiances on it?
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Take a look at this useful RG link.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
16 answers
The progressive global warming process in many ways adversely affects the ecosystems of the seas and oceans. In addition, the growing scale of pollution, waste, including plastic waste and many other toxic, non-biodegradable, contributes to adverse changes in many areas, sea zones and assessments, as well as biological depletion of biodiversity of ecosystems. The scale of this depletion is already beginning to be noticeable also for people in some areas of the sea, in which the number of fished fish is decreasing.
In addition, the rising temperature of the seas and oceans, which will be a derivative of the global warmning process, causes changes in ocean currents, which causes the appearance of new weather anomalies and climatic disasters also in land areas inhabited by people. Until recently, it was thought that seas and assessments, due to their high volume potential for land surfaces, would act as a kind of buffer factor for the global warming process. However, it turns out that the seas and oceans are unlikely to play the role of a buffer factor, they will only quickly undergo the global warmnig process and in this way may also become another factor strengthening the scale of increasingly occurring weather anomalies and climatic cataclysms.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
Are the seas assessed as a global warming process buffer or are they subject to this process?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Relevant answer
Answer
The seas and oceans partially buffer the greenhouse effect. However, the increasing temperature and acidity of seawater and oceans is causing the extinction of coral reefs and many marine life. These are also very negative effects of the ongoing global warming process.
Greetings,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
13 answers
Hi,
Except synoptic stations, does anybody know any website/software that gives the climatological data of unequipped places?
I am aware of using interpolation methods, but, I am looking for a method that extract data for a desired location numerically (like an excel format etc,.).
Thanks,
Relevant answer
Answer
Excellent proposals
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
39 answers
Global warming has got more and more concerns owing to its various effects for nature, social and human health. Carbon neutrality has been recognized an ambitious aims for whole world. However, there are many questions needs scientists to give the answer. for example, what kind of practice is suitable for different countries? Is it possible to curb the climate changes? Is it a political thing or scientific-based solution? what can we do from our daily life, social activities to governmental policy. We have only one-earth, and in-deep discussion will put forward the idea to action. Welcome discussion on these.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, the ongoing global warming process is a fact. Civilization greenhouse gas emissions are a key factor responsible for the global warming process. If we do not stop this process or significantly slow it down, a global climate crisis will appear in several dozen years, which will threaten the existence of many species of flora and fauna and also the existence of man on planet Earth. Therefore, it is necessary to implement various solutions, eco-technologies, eco-energy innovations in a systematic way, increasing the scale of achieving sustainable development goals in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions as soon as possible and reduce environmental pollution. Climate neutrality should be achieved as soon as possible, much earlier before 2050. The future of biodiversity of natural ecosystems and the survival of humanity on planet Earth depend on this.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
11 answers
Under the 1.5 degree temperature rise scenario, what kinds of impacts do you see on agriculture and farmers of countries- mainly India and Nepal? The impacts could be something that we already see today or are projected to be seen in the years to come.
Relevant answer
Answer
Progressing climate changes, including the global warming process, will have an increasingly negative impact on agriculture. It is essential to develop sustainable organic farming.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
5 answers
We have ERA5 time series data which was used to extract maximum and minimum temperature. As the spatial resolution was not good therefore we downscaled it to 90 meters to increase the correlation coefficent value against in-situ data.
so i wanted to know whether this step is scientifically correct or not???
Relevant answer
Answer
In order to be sure, you can receive and compare the data related to the meteorological stations in the desired time period.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
9 answers
Hello Community. I need your help! I want to write Bachelorthesis in field of city research/ecosystem services/climate change and adaptation. I still have no specific research question. So if someone can advice what is better and more important to research at the moment in these fields, i would be very grateful! It will be a huge help!
Relevant answer
Answer
The research questions can read like this
Could there be a link between forest fires and climate change?
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
9 answers
According to the Global Climate Risk Index 2021, developing countries bear the brunt of risks associated with climate change. International Climate Financing has increased over the years; however, the question remains how it can be efficiently managed and assessed for its successful implementation.
Kindly provide your valuable feedbacks.
Relevant answer
Answer
Climate Change Performance Index is an independent monitoring tool for tracking the climate protection performance of 57 countries and the EU. It aims to enhance transparency in international climate politics and enables comparison of climate protection efforts and progress made by individual countries.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
4 answers
Relevant answer
Answer
Quite an interesting topic, I do have to read a lot before I can comment on it but surely looking forward to the expert views.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
3 answers
What are the ways to do a qualitative study on how service providers can support communities to mitigate and adapt to the impacts of climate change, particularly for women and girls. In addition, what kind of operational research may be undertaken to explore the impact of climate change and environment on Sexual Reproductivity and Health Rights (SRHR)? Such as the impact of water salinity in coastal areas on pregnancy-induced hypertension or eclampsia.
Relevant answer
Answer
What matter in qualitative research like the one you planned is employing key informant interview, focus group discussion, and personal/participant observation. Through these qualitative methods, you will be able to generate rich qualitative data on the experiences of local communities on the subject of investigation. Being a good facilitator and learner, you will be able to document the qualitative data to be analyzed through thematic analysis and content analysis as important qualitative methods of data analysis.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
3 answers
Hello, everybody,
I am looking for recommendations for good methodologies and models for climate scenarios that include ENSO and AMO events for local scales.
Relevant answer
Answer
numerical weather prediction such as WRF model or REGCM Model I think you must try it.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
8 answers
I would like to do my PhD on the climate change. If anyone is willing to work with me, we can connect and I can explain the whole theory and then may be we can proceed quantitively to prove my theory is right or wrong.
Relevant answer
Answer
The present climate change (example: current heat waves) is due to the pollution in the air brought about by burning fossil fuels for over 100 years.
If we start using renewables, like solar energy, instead of fossil fuels, the amount of pollution will be the same for a while, then will be less later on.
With less pollution, we will get less extreme weather events like heat waves.
If you are suggesting that with solar energy will get more pollution in the air, that is not possible.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
7 answers
Hey friends,
I am conducting a climate change study in an Australian region.
Does anyone know how to choose the best model for the region?
And moreover, say I want to do the assessment for wet, mean and dry conditions.
Should I just take the average daily rainfall as my reference to see which model has the wettest, driest or average prediction?
Cheers,
Hamideh
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Hamideh,
The ensemble projections of eight CMIP5 climate models in Southeast Queensland, Australia are discussed in the following paper:
You will see how we justify our climate models selection for investigating climate change impacts on a catchment hydrological behaviour.
Cheers,
Mahsa
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
53 answers
In connection with the warming of the Earth's climate, progressive global warming, some areas located in the sub-tropical zone in the future will not be fit for existence, and the migration processes of the population will be intensified.
Do you agree with my opinion?
Please reply
Best wishes
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear S J Malik,
Yes, in some subtropical locations, in developing or low-income, high-population densely populated countries, etc., as climate change progresses and the negative effects of global warming (e.g. more frequent droughts, limited access to water, less and less rainfall, a decline in agricultural production) there is increasing pressure for people to leave such areas. These processes generate an increase in population migration.
Thank you, Greetings,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
3 answers
Hello
I am looking for an idea to study the effect of climate change on ozone pollutants using climate models. Please let me know if you know of any similar research.
best regards
Relevant answer
Answer
The research described in the question is outlined in a compressive manner in the NASA project
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
11 answers
What are the effects of climate change on groundwater drawdown?
Relevant answer
I know that the wars of the future will be fought over water not oil!
But, I think that you should leave this subject to Allah (Subhanahu Wa Ta'ala).
We must not forget that the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad peace and blessings of Allah be upon himﷺ), passed by Sa’d while he was performing ablution.
The Prophet said: "What is this excess?".
Sa’d said: "Is there excess with water in ablution?"
The Prophet() said: “Yes, even if you were on the banks of a flowing river."
عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مَرَّ بِسَعْدٍ وَهُوَ يَتَوَضَّأُ فَقَالَ مَا هَذَا السَّرَفُ فَقَالَ أَفِي الْوُضُوءِ إِسْرَافٌ قَالَ نَعَمْ وَإِنْ كُنْتَ عَلَى نَهَرٍ جَارٍ
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
65 answers
Donald Trump's withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement threatens its future. Now, whispers of Brazil's withdrawal from the Paris climate agreement is heard. Seems Brazil's withdrawal influenced by the withdrawal of the USA. Under this situation, will other countries also withdraw from the agreement?
In your opinion, how will the withdrawal of these countries affect the future of this agreement?
Relevant answer
Answer
With the departure of Donald Trump, new president has entered the Paris climate agreement.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
15 answers
Energy, especially electricity, has long been recognized as an essential commodity for everyday life in the contemporary world [1]. It is the main driving force of the human, social, and economic development of any nation. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA), the global electricity generation in 2017 was 25,551 TWh, of which fossil fuels (coal, oil, and gas) accounted for up to 65% [2]. However, due to their non-renewable nature, these sources are not likely to satisfy the increasing world demand in electricity resulting from the permanent growth in the world’s population and technological advancement. They are declining steadily. A study by Abas et al. [3] showed that oil, natural gas, and coal would be depleted in 2066, 2068, and 2126, respectively. This situation is the primary cause of the current price volatility and energy supply insecurity. Furthermore, the burning of fossil fuels releases toxic air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs), which are detrimental to health and contribute to climate change. The consequences of climate change are far and varied, and include increased wildfires, prolonged droughts, stronger tropical storms, and frequent coastal floods [4].
What is the role of renewable energy in the global energy transformation?
References
  1. Karanfil, F.; Li, Y. Electricity consumption and economic growth: Exploring panel-specific differences. Energy Policy 2015, 82, 264–277.
  2. IEA. Global Energy & CO2 Status Report 2017; IEA: Paris, France, 2018.
  3. Abas, N.; Kalair, A.; Khan, N. Review of fossil fuels and future energy technologies. Futures 2015, 69, 31–49.
  4. Pachauri, R.K.; Allen, M.R.; Barros, V.R.; Broome, J.; Cramer, W.; Christ, R.; Church, J.A.; Clarke, L.; Dahe, Q.; Dasgupta, P. Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Groups I, II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change; IPCC: Geneva, Switzerland, 2014; ISBN 92-9169-143-7.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you dear colleague for this relevant question
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
14 answers
I am working in a research to study resilient buildings. I would like to know if is possible develop a new technology that gives buildings some resilient property.
Relevant answer
Answer
I propose research projects concerning the combination of traditional construction technologies with eco-innovations in materials and pro-environmental technologies of renewable energy sources so that the obtained effect in the green smart construction formula meets the goals of sustainable development, zero emissions, high level of energy savings, etc.
Greetings,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
20 answers
Electric cars have been introduced world wide with the idea that there will be some decrease in carbon footprints along with decrease in air pollution. But we have to charge an electric car on regular basis. From where that energy will come, is a big question. Some countries have hydel power generation, and some have thermal energy, the other may have solar also.
Second question is about water, air and soil pollution? If we shifted from air pollution to water and/or soil pollution, we have the ability to handle such mega scale pollutions?
In the light of the above, what is your analysis and views?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi. Mainly yes.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
31 answers
I would like to raise this question to the scientific community. Please provide your opinion and your arguments.
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi. Renewable energy resources as biofuel is good but if the electrical car use water as a fuel will be better . Electrical cell used to make electrolysis for water to produce hydrogen then the produced hydrogen is input for fuel cell to produce electrivcty and oxygen .
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
4 answers
I am wondering if there exists any good paper that has analyzed the relations between climate change and the standard of life before the Industrial Revolution. As we know the real wage rates for British building workers since 1200, I am particularly interested if we can detect any correlation between temperature in England and the real wage before 1750 or before 1850 before England shows a sharp growth in real wage rates.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear @Yoshinori Shiozawa Kindly check the following links, and attached pdfs; hope, these could be important sources of insight to the answer of your question.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
26 answers
Can climate change be considered a new national emergency and do it require immediate actions? If it is in conflict with national security concerns, which one should be prioritized, e.g., national business benefits vs climate change commitments OR carbon emissions reduction vs livelihood improvement?
In addition, will requirements on accountability and transparency of militaries' performance on climate affecting national security?
A national emergency is a serious situation that requires immediate action from the nation. The most typical emergency is war and the latest one is COVID-19. (Read more: https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/we-are-living-in-a-climate-emergency-and-were-going-to-say-so/
)
Most of us believe that climate change is there and needs our effective actions. However, every country and region bears different forms and levels of risks and impacts, and therefore reacts variously. Someone hopes to stop using fossil fuels and achieve net-zero emissions right now. Some others prefer incremental and just transitions. How immediate the actions are appropriate?
As researchers, what could be our responses contributing to provide more proper climate choices or actions?
Looking forward to dear folks' responses. All welcome!
Cheers,
Hong
Relevant answer
Answer
Some Pacific island states face the prospect of total submersion and "declaring national emergencies" won't do them any good. There are no domestic measures open to them. Security, business, and territorial sovereignity are irrelevant issues. It is doubtful that measures yet to be enacted by large states will save them. They will have to rely on the good will of large states for resettlement.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
10 answers
Please suggest how can we measure the hydrological sensitivity of a basin to the changing patterns of temperature and rainfall using inflow and outflow records at a particular gauging site or whole basin.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Shekhar Kumar , thank you for this interesting question. My 1st thought is the definition of climate change: Climate change is defined as gradual changes in all the interconnected weather elements on our planet over approximately 30 years.
This implies we need over 30 years of measured hydrological data.
Secondly we need to undestand the hydrological effects of meteorological changes, besides the influences by humans, especially because of urban growth, e.g. water supply and drainage - which influence the natural hydrological balance.
Besides filtering existing meteo-data and even water system measurements, you need to consider using a watershed to river basin-scale model, like the Soil & Water Assessment Tool (SWAT).
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
12 answers
Kindly request you clarify on this issues. Plus, how significantly such methane contribution--if yes-- is worsening the global warming?
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
15 answers
Moreover, only by considering re-radiation effects of built-up area would be good enough?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi. I hope the following chapter might help you:
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
5 answers
We need to prepare a weighted average multi-model ensemble of projected future daily precipitation by assigning weights to individual CMIP6 models based on past performance. For this purpose, We want to use Bayesian Model Averaging. Since the distribution of precipitation is highly skewed with large number of zeros in it, a mixed (discrete-gamma) distribution is preferred as the conditional PDF as per Sloughter et al., (2007).
Considering 'y' as the reference (observed ) data and 'fk' as the modelled data of kth model,
The conditional PDF consists of two parts. The first part estimates P(y=0|fk) using a logistic regression model. The second part consists the following the term P(y>0|fk)*g(y|fk).
Since the computation of P(y>0|fk) is not mentioned in the referred manuscript, If I can compute P(y=0|fk), Can I compute P(y>0|fk) as 1-P(y=0|fk) in this case?
If not, Can someone help in computing P(y>0|fk)?
You can find the the referred paper here https://doi.org/10.1175/MWR3441.1
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes. You can proceed with that formula as you deal with Precipitation data, which contains only non-negative values. according to axioms of probability P(y≠0|fk)=1-P(y=0|fk).
You can find a worked example in the book titled “Statistical Methods in Hydrology and Hydroclimatology(DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-8779-0)”
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
7 answers
I have been able to obtain data of averages for the whole of India from the IMD website and also global datasets over a large timeframe however I cannot seem to obtain individual state/station data.
I am looking to get data that shows trends across different areas of India over the period 1985-2015, therefore data from individual states or weather stations would be much more useful. These exact years are not necessary but data covering this approximate period showing annual or seasonal values would be very helpful.
Does anyone know where I might be able to get this?
Thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Alice, I just came across your question.
This link may prove beneficial to you or anyone else looking for similar data.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
2 answers
Who has done or wants to do research on how technology can scale moral courage--can make it far easier to recruit &commit critical mass numbers of volunteers for nonviolent civil resistance. campaigns? And how can I reach them to invite them to a brainstorm session (maybe several) on what might be the behavioral levers that are most likely to motivate most "concerned" but not activist people to minimize their fears sufficiently and inspire "their better angels" to commit to tactics that history has proven are the most effective for achieving positive system change in the battles against greed, racism, autocracy and ignorance; to be able to recruit the numbers necessary to vastly improve our chances to save what is still savable of Mother Nature and democracy in the little time we have left.' Entre to senior level programmers, or crowdfunding social media mavens would also be especially appreciated, as well as possible research interns. Any location.
Relevant answer
Answer
That is an interesting approach.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
9 answers
i need solutions based in intentional communities, i read a couple papers but it seems to be more a diagnosis than an actually concise solution.
i need more info about how to have a climate governance that actually works in local communities than a large worldwide solution.
Relevant answer
Answer
Greetings colleagues, governance is in itself a solution for environmental management at all levels. It is because it is horizontal, participatory, includes all public and private actors, focuses on the territory and is multidimensional, you simply have to find a methodology that complies with all these precepts.
I invite you to read my work in the following publication:
An article would be published soon on the analysis of these conditions in Argentina, analyzing local scenarios of a different nature.
I can read any questions and you can write to me at ltraba@fich.unl.edu.ar.
Greetings.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
6 answers
Can you please suggest a journal covering climate change, environment and development policy, which has a comparatively quick editorial process?
Relevant answer
Answer
Climate and Development, Environment, Development and Sustainability, Regional Climate Change
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
20 answers
What are the most serious problems of civilization development that should be solved as soon as possible? What are the global problems for which research should be developed and solutions to these problems resolved in 2019 and in subsequent years?
One of such research problems, which should not be postponed for an indefinite future, is the need to develop environment-friendly sustainable economic development in order to slow down the adverse process of global warming.
With the warming of the Earth's climate, the risk of more dramatic climate cataclysms, including tsunamis, increases.
Tsunami may be a derivative of the global warming problem. Global warming generates an increase in climate disasters, including more cases of tsunamis.
But not only is the risk of more violent and more dramatic tsunamis rising. Also in recent years, there has been more other types of climate and natural climate catatics, such as droughts, rainstorms, tornadoes and weather anomalies.
At present, it should no longer be asked whether global warming generates an increase in natural disasters only what rate of growth will be recorded in the future? So many data, research centers confirms the progressing process of global warming, that the problem is unquestionable.
More and more data points to the growing risk of climate change, unfavorable for human and life on the Earth, increase of climate disasters, climatic and weather anomalies, which are the result of global warming, rising average annual temperature near the Earth's surface.
Now we should just ask: How can these adverse processes be counteracted? What ecological technologies, renewable energy sources, how to help natural environments, how to rebuild them, such as afforestation, to build natural ecosystems absorbing greenhouse gases?
How to develop ecological business ventures? How to create financing systems for this type of pro-ecological projects? How to dispel international cooperation in this matter? What actions should be taken to move towards the development of a new ecological green economy?
How to develop environmentally sustainable economic development to slow down the unfavorable warming of the Earth's climate?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Michael Issigonis,
Yes, tsunamis are mainly caused by underwater earthquakes in marine or oceanic areas.
Thank you, Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
11 answers
I too work on the ethics of climate change. Please send me your e-mail, so that I can send you flyers about relevant books. My e-mail is attfieldr@cardiff.ac.uk . I will attach a flyer for my textbook on environmental ethics. Best wishes, Robin Attfield
Relevant answer
Answer
Leonardo, I have just sent you an email describing 7 recent books on ethics and environmental ethics. Please consider recommending them to your Library at Salento. Best wishes,
Robin Attfield
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
3 answers
I hope everything is going well for you. I'm attempting to measure extreme temperature and precipitation indices (TXn, TXx, SU, RX5day, PRCPTOT) data using the CMIP6 model in my current research project, but I'm not sure where I can get pre-made data.
Relevant answer
Answer
You can download CMIP6 data here:
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
4 answers
I have life cycle impact categories data based on ReCiPe method but I am wondering if it is possible to use the characterization factor somehow to convert the data according to CML.
Thanks!
Relevant answer
Answer
ReCiPe, a method developed in 2008 between universities is to transform long list of life cycle inventory into limited number of indicator scores. These indicator scores express relative severity on environmental impact category. It is determined at two levels – 18 midpoint indicators and 3 endpoint indicators. Each of them include factors to three cultural perspectives – Individualist; Hierarchist and Eglitarian (long term). The major disadvantage of this method is that it does not include future impacts as it is presumed to be already incorporated.
CML 2001 restricts quantitative modelling to early stages in the cause-effect chain to limit uncertainties. Results are grouped in midpoint categories according to common mechanisms (e.g. climate change) or commonly accepted groupings (e.g. ecotoxicity). CML 2001 is developed by the Institute of Environmental Sciences, Leiden University, Normalisation factors for CML 2001 are available for EU and the World. The normalisation factors are calculated via total substance emissions and characterisation factors per substance, and are hence following the substance level updates as described.
Since the objectives and factors considered are different, it will not be wise to convert as it would lose the entire theme of interpretation.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
3 answers
Let's say, in a very specific situation in the wake of a climate change in which people would like renewable energy as compared to non-renewable energy, say fossil fuel energy, we have 2 alternatives which reduce carbon emissions (attribute 1) with improvements in variations in annual rainfall patterns and urban floodings (attribute 2). Now, we have satus-quo as the 3rd (or 1st opt-out) and non-of-these as the 4th (or 2nd opt-out) alternatives !
Relevant answer
Answer
Please try Hellwig's method as explained in our newest paper:
Based on your question details I think this method can be a solution.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
3 answers
Can anyone suggest any established method to assess/measure climate change induced loss and damage (L&D)?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello, interested people can read the reprint version of my two articles on a similar topic:
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
47 answers
How do atmospheric radiative windows relate with greenhouse gases and climate change?
Relevant answer
Answer
If Earth's longwave (greenhouse) absorption were gray, the same at all wavelengths, the climate sensitivity to doubled CO2 would be incredibly high (something like 140 K per doubling). IR windows lower the climate sensitivity considerably. Try writing two semigray climate models, one with a fixed absorption coefficient between 4 and 200 microns, and one with the same coefficient everywhere, but 0 between 8 and 12 microns (approximately the situation for Earth). You'll be surprised at the difference.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
5 answers
forecasting of drought instead off forecasting of flood due to climate changes and any models are best
Relevant answer
Answer
Interesting topic.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
4 answers
I have now doubts as to whether the scientists who play a key role in the political goals or who are consulted have the real, appropriately up-to-date perspective based on two facts: On the one hand, the ocean vortex, even temporary, have a much more impact on the climate than previously believed and this has not been included in the previous climate model calculations. In spite of the high-performance computers, are the climate model calculations at all adequately good in order to pass such far-reaching laws on it, if only a few ocean eddies might in reality cause a different climate than the one previously calculated? Link to an German article on this: https://www.eskp.de/klimawandel/ozeanwirbel-die-fleissigen-helfer-der-meeresstroemung-935695/ Second, that methane is broken down in the atmosphere after approx. 8 years, but stores 25 times more heat than carbon dioxide and this again has not been adequately taken into account in the climate protection agreement. In addition, large amounts of methane are measured, the origin of which cannot yet be explained. Link to an German article on this: https://www.eskp.de/klimawandel/ozeanwirbel-die-fleissigen-helfer-der-meeresstroemung-935695/
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Eva,
As you know, in science we are continuously developing our knowledge and testing hypotheses. So, it should not be surprising to find over and over again some changes in our view on the functioning of the Earth system. In regard to modeling, famous prof Box used to say "All models are wrong, but some are useful". Indeed, models are not expected to provide a 1:1 representation of the Earth system, they must be to some extent simplified.
However, the climate models are still one of the best tools we have in science. Even if some issues were not addressed exactly in the previous versions, it does not mean that the models are wrong, as some of the effects of these processes were already included by so-called parametrization.
The key question is how the mentioned problems are important from a quantitative point of view. From my assessment, it is likely that they do not alter the general trends.
Sorry for the short answer but the issue is really extensive.
with best wishes
WItold
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
33 answers
Planet Earth inclusive of humanity is facing the unprecedented twin crisis of global warming and climate change which are impacting all systems and sectors transgressing all boundaries. There are two main approaches: mitigation and adaptation. Mitigation for preventing greenhouse gases to build up in the atmosphere by curtailing its release at the source as well as by enhancing GHG sink. The second strategy involves measures for living with the climatic changes. A balanced mix of multiprong measures is to be taken from individual to institutional levels, from local, regional to global scale.
All the researchers, thinkers and RG friends are invited to take part in this important discussion with your insightful views and useful literature about the state of the art of mitigation and adaptive strategies - both traditional ecological knowledge and modern tools and technologies.
Relevant answer
Answer
14 May MMXXI
This thinking was already stated forty years ago and no one heeded the warning.
Now, we are to believe we can alter the horrific course we have chosen for our planet!
Stop dreaming.
Cordially...
ASJ
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
12 answers
Several of the negative environmental impacts of climate change on environmental sanitation have been known and discussed for years. I would like to know what the negative environmental impacts are and if there is any positive, in your point of view, in this scenario. Let's discuss about it.
Relevant answer
Answer
The effect of the progressive climate change, including the accelerating global warming process over the last few decades, is, among others, periods of drought that occur more frequently in many parts of the world, regardless of the climatic zone. Consequently, rainfall and clean water resources are diminishing. Declining rainfall and clean water supplies can degrade sanitation.
Thank you, Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
9 answers
Dear community,
I am aware of Bio-Oracle where climate change scenarios can be downloaded. However, due to the comments of a reviewer, I need to use another global circulation model. I was wondering if someone knows where to download another database for the RCP scenarios. It would be very helpful for our work.
Best regards!
Luis
Relevant answer
Answer
I could send you the layers of SST and SAT used in:
- Buonomo, R., Chefaoui, R. M., Lacida, R. B., Engelen, A. H., Serrao, E. A., & Airoldi, L. (2018). Predicted extinction of unique genetic diversity in marine forests of Cystoseira spp. Marine environmental research138, 119-128.
- Chefaoui, R. M., Duarte, C. M., & Serrão, E. A. (2018). Dramatic loss of seagrass habitat under projected climate change in the Mediterranean Sea. Global Change Biology24(10), 4919-4928.
cheers
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
17 answers
Even here in Canada they are saying that climate action is a science based action as a promoting slogan for change, but if science based climate action is implemented through non-science based markets is not that a problem?.  UNCSD 2012 / Rio +20 in the Future We Want formalized a paradigm shift from the traditional market to green markets/green growth/green economy but instead of moving towards creating green markets by internalizing the environmental externality in the price mechanism of the traditional market to shift to green markets they are fast moving into creating carbon pricing based markets to continue treating environmental issues as they were in the traditional market still as externalities….
Carbon pricing based markets are dwarf green markets as they do not reflect perfect green market theory and they are unconnected to the green market price….Does not a science based climate action requires a science based market?. If yes, carbon pricing is not the way to go as they are not green markets and we are supposed to have shifted towards green markets in 2012, why are we going that way? Does the shift to green markets in 2012 made the scientific method and perfect green market theory irrelevant?
Relevant answer
Answer
I believe that this publication that I put for your consideration is very up-to-date and pertinent in the context of this discussion. I recommend it.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
13 answers
Think about it just for a positive exchange of ideas, shifting to a world under green markets leaves the traditional market knowledge base behind creating green market paradigm shift knowledge gaps in need of fixing or of new ideas, and this includes the concept of economic efficiency a la pareto. And this leads to the question, why is Pareto efficient in traditional markets neither green Pareto inefficient in green markets? Any ideas/thoughts?
Relevant answer
Answer
In my modest perception, Pareto's Law describes that with only 20 percent of the overall effort, 80 percent of the performance can be achieved. At 80 percent work, the remaining 20 percent success takes the most effort. That is why it is also known as the 80/20 Rule. Pareto's law in a perfectly pro-ecological economy, in a totally sustainable economy formed according to the concept of green and circular economy, either they do not work at all or they work in a very limited way.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
15 answers
I have been working on research and development projects for about 10 years. One of the few constants in the proposal calls is the persistence of donors in having a theory of change from the applicants. However, I do not think the theory of change is a good value for the time of the designers. I wonder how a proposal team can develop a theory that would be valid for 3 years considering climate change and transition in the international power system. Also, I have seen that more than half of the theory of changes I evaluated do not articulate assumptions, more than 90% do not use any risk association.
What do you think?
Relevant answer
Answer
incorporating a theory or a model related to change when implementing practice changes helps in understanding how implementation will take place, what influences or affects the outcomes leading to either success or failure. the theory or the model serves as a guideline making it easier for implementation to take place. https://www.coursehero.com/tutors-problems/Nursing/10627774-Why-is-it-important-to-incorporate-a-theory-or-model-related-to-change/
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
52 answers
I know there are some global database that include rainfall. But I would like something more specific for Africa at a spatial resolution around 0.25 degrees, and daily frequency for the last decade. Something equivalent to the European ECA&D would be great. Does it exist for Africa? Thanks.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks to All for all these very interesting sites to get data, specially recent data and/or also different time scales. I just want to add one specificity of the Hydrosciences SIEREM monthly gridded dataset, which you can not have in any other bases: interpolation is ONLY based on OBSERVED data for each time step. We do not use any reference average with anomalies, no reconstruction, only observed data. This makes the difference with all other products, i.e. in a forthcoming paper we show that our product gives a much better correlation with observed groundbased data than all other products we compared. It is interesting specially in rainfall-runoff modelling, where we search to reduce the uncertainty of all entries in the model. Have a look here. http://www.hydrosciences.org/spip.php?article1387
and the related paper
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
8 answers
Green cover is reducing all over the world and temperature is increasing concurrently as well.There are so many factors are responsibe for the rise of temperature & Humidity), but what's the effect of tree/forest cover reduction on it?
  • Is there any direct relationship between tree/forest cover reduction on temperature and humidity? (i suppose yes, there is)
  • How to calculate the effect of tree on temperature and humidity?
NB: Article reference would be appriciated
Relevant answer
Answer
You can use the NDVI, LST, and Soil Moisture index
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
5 answers
What would be the methodology of this work and how should I conduct this research?
Relevant answer
Answer
Climate change needs data for a long period say 30 years.
The methodology is
Desktop study of water quality of rivers as well as rainfall in a certain portion of a river in your region.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
11 answers
Earth's atmospheric temperature is increasing faster than climate change models predict. Heat from anthropogenic friction may explain this observation. Conservation of energy dictates that energy used to propel and stop vehicles eventually becomes heat. This previously unacknowledged heat emanates in part from vehicular boundary layer aerodynamics and braking systems. The number of aircraft and ground-based vehicles in use suggests anthropogenic frictional heat may be a significant contributor to global warming. These observations support much wider use of regenerative braking systems.
Relevant answer
Answer
Any transformation of energy on planet contributes to all
functioning mechanisms of planet.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
2 answers
In the coming decade, Africa will be met with an avalanche of challenges. The consequences of not taking the required steps to avert the coming climate crisis and for not capitalizing on the 4th industrial revolution. These two pose the greatest threat to the welfare and lives of the average African. However, they also present an unlikely opportunity for Africa to shock the world. An opportunity that must not be missed.
If Africans (not necessarily African governments but Africans themselves) can in joint action, create an unprecedented transformation of the African society between now and the end of the present decade (just in time for the climate crisis and the wave of the 4th Industrial revolution), I.e. If Africans can create a new African society capable of averting the impending climate crisis, then Africa can and will capitalize on the 4th industrial revolution.
Subsequently once this happens, Africa will be placed on an unstoppable path of drastic developments in areas such as, infrastructure, agriculture, commerce, media, science and technology etc. In easier terms - A golden age..
Relevant answer
Answer
I think the role of joint actions of people should grow. The role of cooperatives will be important in this process. Here is information on promising types of cooperatives for Africa.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
3 answers
I am looking for an answer to the question related to data for future climate change. On several forums I found that tmp and pcp data should be used for climate change. I wonder if you can also use slr, hmd and wnd data?
Thanks and regards
Damian
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes, solar radiation, humidity and wind data can assist in refining the reference crop evapotranspiration if you are doing studies on climate change and crop productivity in future.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
1 answer
Dated: 24-June-2020
Why “roadblocks are often been overlooked by forecasters” before moving to the “prediction system (PS)”? Can it (PS) be considered a sustainable in the long term?
Now a days most of the forecasting agencies in India are busy in giving seasonal weather forecast (regional) including extremes and making it instantly available on the net. Many are in race of launching new portal to do so without comprehension of the predictability charade. Mostly been done using numerical modelling systems without exploring (disclosing) the some main factor which are essentially are the roadblocks in predictability.
I think, correcting spatial bias via embedded station data network should not only be the focus, though it will be a help but not sustainable solution. Why main problem lies been often overlooked before moving to PS? For example- intraseasonal variability (main roadblock to the predictability) is not well resolved in GFS forecasting model (or alike other models) and these oftenly used by the forecaster as an input data to their chosen prediction model. My question is, if unresolved or inadequate in specific sense (exam.- not having tendency to reproduce intraseasonal signals) inputs goes into the main predictive model then how sustainable will be the forecast in the long run. I feel, to do any less may result in prediction unsustainable. Surely, it may results in few right prediction and leads to self-acclaimed commendations but in longer run chances of failure in prediction will be higher. In terse, these prediction will have no substantial value in the long term.
For example – in a year when these charade processes will be predominant, forecast will be failure and it leads to socio-economic loss and setback to forecasting organizations. In general it will then, as usual, follow with post-mortem which will again highlights the need in the improvement of microphysics, intraseasonal signals variability, lead lag relationship, issues associated to AWS, standards rules or norms, installations, implementations policies, and money etc. aspects and in some cases probably leads to blame game to defend the failure. Remember, these reasoning to defend the prediction sometimes makes other agency competitive and robust. Healthy criticism can substitute constructiveness. I think, scientific failure must be constructively accepted to explore afresh scientific causes behind instead politicization.
If such things continue then it will be followed with actions such as --- Despondent with exiting forecast, Govt. decided to search for new options, leaving or updating the existing.
I think, Obliviousness should not a substitute for decisive forecasting. Forecasters must ensure that all roadblock are properly addressed or informed properly to tackle forecasting related failures and contingency. The truth must not left to postmortem and implications of the words.
Best,
Vaid, B. H.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
28 answers
What kind of scientific research dominate in the field of Global warming?
Please, provide your suggestions for a question, problem or research thesis in the issues: Global warming.
Please reply.
I invite you to the discussion
Best wishes
Relevant answer
Answer
… The human influence on global warming is no longer simply a hypothesis, but an established fact …Skripnuk, D. F., & Samylovskaya, E. A. (2018, August). Human activity and the global temperature of the planet. In IOP conference series: earth and environmental science (Vol. 180, No. 1, p. 012021). IOP Publishing.
  • asked a question related to Climate Change
Question
5 answers
Hi
We are going to research climate change in a large scale area (Iran). We can minimize the size of calculations and the volume of data (Precipitation, Minimum temperature, and Maximum temperature) to download by using monthly data instead of daily. So I want to know, is it scientifically ok if we use monthly data for bias correction and downscaling?
Best regards
Relevant answer
Answer
as recommended by sir Péter Csontos, you can take ideas from New Phytologist (2020) 228: 1535–1547. doi: 10.1111/nph.16740.